Cristian Luca, Three Families of Levantine Merchants from Constantinople in the Late Sixteenth Century International Maritime Trade in North–Western Black Sea and Lower Danube Areas

The Levantine merchants from Constantinople, well known as interpreters and clerks working for the Western embassies in the Ottoman capital, were also as merchants involved in international maritime ventures. they enjoyed an easier access to the Black Sea, as a Latin-rite Ottoman subject of the Porte, associated with Muslim merchants or used the vessels of Ottoman ship-owners in order to reach the ports of the maritime Danube, transit centers for goods sent for sale to the Polish market. the Galantes, Panzanis, and Gaglianos were among the most important Levantine merchants who controlled the maritime trade routes between Constantinople and the ports of the mouths of the Danube in the second half of the sixteenth century. this study therefore aims to outline their professional activity, as they were part of the community of Levantine merchants from Pera who chose the business environment, unlike other Levantine families who continued to serve the Western embassies in Constantinople.

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