Regionalization in Globalization

Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXIV, Supplement No. 1, 2015

Regionalization in Globalization
Introduction 5
Globalization and Regionalism—The “Strategic Regions” 7
Vasile Puscas

Globalization and Regionalism—The “Strategic Regions”

The present paper epitomizes the output of certain regards on the challenging subject of global interdependencies and the pathway to dealing with them, through globalization, new regionalism and the assets of a current restructuring of the International System, while shifting with late considerations over Central Asia. This task was materialized with the occasion of the International Symposium on Cultural Diplomacy, referred to as “Culture, Globalization, and International Relations over the Next Two Decades”, which took place in Berlin (Institute for Cultural Diplomacy), in May 2010.

Central Asia, globalization, new regionalism, EU, NATO, SCO, International System, restructuring, power, strategic regions.

Globalization, Regionalization and Competitiveness   19
Melania-Gabriela Ciot

Globalization, Regionalization and Competitiveness

The recent years have seen a surge of academic and policy attention devoted to the notion of “competitiveness”: the new conventional wisdom is that nations, regions and cities have no option but to strive to be competitive in order to survive in the new marketplace, forged by globalisation and the new information technologies. There has been increasing focus on regions and cities as the key elements of wealth creation and economic governance. In short, the economic performance of regions and cities has moved centre stage in academic and policy discussions.

The present article frames the need for increasing the competitiveness in the lights of the new approaches on globalization and by particularizing it to the regional/local level. In the first part, it will present the new trends and challenges of globalization, its implications for the EU. Competitiveness will be approached from the point of view of regions, belonging to the EU, and the paper will end with the presentation of the possibilities of increasing the regional competitiveness post-2013 in EU.


impact, challenges,implications,regional competitiveness, clusters, policies.

The Region—Engine of Growth in the Global Economy           33
Luminiþa Şoproni

The region—engine of growth in the global economy

Globalization changes the role and functions of the border and creates new forms of regional cooperation and development, arising from the need to generate development opportunities and to enhance international competitiveness of states in the international interconnected frame of the the present. In this context, the micro-region represents a pole of development and growth not only adapted to strong economies, but also to countries in full process of development and growth, seeking solutions to annihilate the effects of the global crisis and to globally increase their competitiveness. The starting point for the introduction of these mechanisms is to identify the suitable resources in order to become the center of the region’s development and the source of attracting foreign capital.

globalization, new regionalism, region-state, succes stories.

Regional Participation within European Multi-level Governance          45
Dragoş Pãun

Regional participation within European Multi-level Governance

The role of regions is becoming ever more prominent within the European Union, albeit the involvement of the latter in decision making remains somewhat weak, with considerable differences from one state to another, depending on traditions and legal provisions. This paper aims to shed light on the extent to which mechanisms are likely to play an active part in the multi-level governance system of the EU, in the current context, by means of a concrete set of mechanisms and tools. Their ability to get involved in communication networks and to adjust to the requirements of the newly-established priorities at the Community level, e.g. the ones stipulated in the Europe 2020 Agenda, largely depends on their performance in terms of lobbying at the core of EU decision making.

region, European Union, multi-level governance, lobby, networks.


European Regions and Multiculturalisms: Beyond the Nation?             55

Adrian-Ciprian Pãun
Adrian-Gabriel Corpãdean

European Regions and Multiculturalisms: Beyond the Nation?

After the adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon, it has become evident that the role of regions is meant to be reassessed within the framework of the European Union, as a decrease in the prominence of the national level is undeniable. In this context, the traditional meanings attributable to such concepts and communitarianism and patriotism have been altered, so as to correspond to the increasingly multicultural approach fostered by the amplification of globalisation. Hence, attachment to a national identity depends on a new set of factors, whilst the risk of degenerating into extremism remains a concern, which enables us to pose a paramount question: will the future of the European Union be reliant on national identities or, on the contrary, will a common set of values prevail and is that even desirable?


region, identity, multiculturalism, patriotism, sovereignty.


A Border Town between Globalization and Separatism: The Case of the Free Territory of Trieste  65

Massimiliano Rovati

A border town between globalization and separatism: the case of the Free Territory of Trieste

Analyzing the new examples of regionalism and separatism who are coming through the European states, this article takes into consideration the case of Trieste, always considered “special” in terms of geographic location, ethnic relations and relationship with the border. A kind of socio-political laboratory that often anticipated events then occurred in the rest of Italy and Europe. Since the days of the Habsburg rule, the role of Trieste in the central European landscape attracted intellectuals, writers, historians. Currently, Trieste is a town that looks to the future with the head turned back. A border town where mental boundaries have taken the place of the political ones, where despite the happy position and the role as a crossroads between East and West Europe, the mentality of inhabitants and directors seems anchored to the comfort and to the utopian patterns of the past. In this scenario, since last year started the issue for independence in the Free Territory of Trieste, another legacy of the past in a situation of global and local crisis, that seems to seal the city in a space out of time.

Globalization, Cosmopolitanism, Multiculturalism, Separatism, Autonomism, Border, Free Territory.

How Many Are the Ethnic Minorities in Europe?                77
Luca Bregantini

Regionalization and historical-cultural dimension of Northwest Romania

Europe is a continent of great linguistic and cultural differences and the distribution of languages and cultures is extremely uneven. The minority groups of Europe are both the national and indigenous minorities and the immigrants. They reside in the sovereign states of Europe but for historical, political and social reasons are quite different. In the regions where the number of national and indigenous minorities is relatively small—that is, Western Europe—we encounter the largest number of immigrants and foreign languages. On the contrary, in Eastern Europe the number of national and indigenous minorities is considerably larger, but the number of immigrants and foreign languages is considerably smaller than in Western Europe. The data of the repertory has been collected from different sources and by different means (e.g. statistics, census, literature and by web references). It means that much data present limits in coherence and limits in details: if census refers data with a high level of precision, other sources offer information in terms of thousands or hundreds without attention to the details.


minority, ethnic group, ethnic complexity, diversity, immigrants


Security and Energy in the Extended Black Sea Area                          101

Anca Stângaciu

Security and energy in the extended Black Sea area

The transformation of energetic resources in a matter of state security requires the elaboration of specific policies and strategies, energy thus becoming a strategic factor in worldwide politics. The vision of energetic security depends on the regional and global context, on the position that a country has in the international economic circuit but also on a certain kind of geopolitical reality. Assuring energetic security means for Romania reducing energy-related expenses, insuring as convenient as possible external energetic resources (from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and even from Turkmenistan) and optimizing the use of internal energetic potential. Romania holds a diversified range of primary energetic resources as well as a great potential for renewable resources which can be strategically employed.
geopolitics, geo-strategy, Black Sea, security, strategy

Ukraine between EU and the Eurasian Regional Project in 2013        113

Maria Costea, Simion Costea

Ukraine between EU and the Eurasian regional project in 2013

This article analyses how Ukraine balances between EU’s regional project of Eastern Partnership and the Russian regional project of Eurasian Customs Union. A large part of the Ukrainian elite and society shared the pro-European option, but the pro-Moscow orientation of Government proved to be stronger at the decisive moment of Vilnius Summit. Russia had the political will and the necessary smart power instruments to determine Ukraine to choose Kremlin’s regional projects. It was an important geopolitical victory for Russia. The pro-Russian decision of the Ukrainian Government was based on the economic security arguments, in a difficult context. The Ukrainian Government presented this decision as a victory, as a result of the concessions obtained in its negotiations with Russia. However, as the pro-EU protests in November-December 2013 have proved, the Ukrainian society continues to be divided into the pro-EU option and the pro-Moscow option. The Ukrainian Foreign Policy will continue to promote both the pro-EU and the pro-Russian “vectors.” Ukraine needs a better EU offer: clear economic solutions on the short-term and credible membership prospective on the long-term, based on strict and fair conditionality. That is also the case for the Republic of Moldova and Georgia. The article is based mainly on Russian, Ukrainian and Brussels sources.
regional project, Eurasia, EU, Ukraine, Russia, Azarov, Customs Union

Region and Regionalism, Strategic Concepts in the Hungarian Regionalization Process       131

István Polgár

Region and Regionalism, strategic concepts in the Hungarian regionalisation process

The article entitled “Region and Regionalism, Strategic Concepts in the Hungarian Regionalisation Process” aims to summarize the most important steps, obstacles and problems encountered by a Central European country, namely Hungary, in order to reach the objective called the European Structural and Cohesion Funds. The author presents a variety of ideas and concepts related to the regionalisation process and administrative reform in Hungary, using a diversified domestic and foreign bibliography. The study places a special focus on the political decisions, on Hungary’s administrative-territorial reorganization process, with explanations regarding certain undercurrent tensions during the European construction and integration process with a special regard on Central and Eastern Europe.

region, regionalism, strategic, Hungary, administrative reform


The Regional Dimension of the Lifelong Learning Policies Program in Romania      145

Constantin-Vasile Þoca

The regional dimension of the Lifelong Learning Policies program in Romania

The paper proposes an analysis on the regional dimension of the Lifelong Learning Policies in Romania through the regionalization of the mobility and placement programs included. Through an applied methodology, we will study the following relevant indicators: student mobilities and placement, professor mobilities and placement, foreign students’ mobility in Romania, areas of study for mobility and placements, top 10 universities from Romania active in the Erasmus program, top 10 European Erasmus universities. Data will go through a comparison process towards determining regional and macroregional poles in the case of mobilities and placements in Romania, while also providing insight on the added value that this program brings.

mobility, universities, Erasmus, LLP, development region, macroregion


The Role of the Borders in the Romanian Regionalization                   163

Ioan Horga, Ana Maria Costea

The role of the borders in the Romanian regionalization

Nowadays we are witnessing a transition period, a post new regionalism period in which both states and regions are trying to find the most sustainable methods in order to ensure the life quality of their citizens. This post new regionalism was generated by the economic and financial crisis that affected Europe, in which states found not only national responses, but also local, and regional ones. The present paper’s aim is to develop a glibly analysis over the issue of regionalization in Romania, especially in the frontier regions, as this subject has created national debates over the number, the extension and the criteria that is being used for the development of these regions, given the fact that Romania was already administratively divided in counties in which emerged cultural and, historical distinctiveness.

Romania, the EU, regionalization, new regionalism, borders

Regionalization and Historical-Cultural Dimension of Northwest Romania    175

Mircea Brie, Edina Lilla Mészáros


Regionalization and historical-cultural dimension of Northwest Romania

The present article tackles a very actual and heavily debated topic in our country, that of the regionalization. Our aim is to present how the memory of belonging to a historical region, the ethnical criteria, the local/regional identity and pride influence the outlining of the regionalization projects from the North-West Region of Transylvania. As a case study, we have chosen to unfold the regionalization initiatives which target the North-West Region due to its unique character, being an administrative unit, which in the course of history became part of a multiethnic province with many autonomous regions. In order to better understand the current decentralization projects of various political parties, we have considered necessary to also present the historical regions, ethnical- and administrative territorial configuration of Transylvania throughout the centuries. We wish to prove that despite the devices used in the regionalization process, stating that its role is purely economic reality shows that neither the ethnical nor the historical criteria can be neglected in case of Transylvania, an extremely heterogonous region with strong regional identities.

Regionalization, decentralization, historical region, Partium, Crişana, Banat, Maramureş, administrative


The Reform Process of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)               191

Titus Corlãțean

The Reform Process of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)

The reform process of the conventional and jurisdictional control system in Strasbourg related to human rights is a continuous process and it is necessary in order to handle in due time and in the spirit of the European Convention of Human Rights the high number of complaints made by European citizens of the States party to the Convention. In this respect it is significant to see the decisions taken at the Ministerial conferences in Interlaken (February 2010), Izmir (April 2011), and Brighton (April 2012) and the adoption of Protocols no. 15 and no. 16 to the European Convention on Human Rights.


European Convention on Human Rights, Reform, Protocol 15, Protocol 16, Interlaken, Izmir, Brighton

• Varia                                                                                                             

Transylvania between Identities: Imperial Heritage and Nation-State after 1918       203

Luminița Ignat-Coman

Transylvania between Identities: Imperial Heritage and Nation-State after 1918

Established in December 1918, Greater Romania incorporated several territories that had previously been part of empires. Transylvania had been for a long time under foreign rule, and the period 1867-1918, when it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, left an indelible mark upon its identity. The aim of my paper is to investigate the imperial heritage in Transylvania, to which many of its features are attributed, as well as the differences that set it apart and confer uniqueness to it, such as ethnic-cultural diversity, the attitude toward work, religious tolerance, the longstanding struggle of Transylvanians for political rights, which transformed them into civic-minded citizens, and so forth. The paper argues that Transylvania, an ethnically and culturally diverse region, is often considered as more westernized than the rest of the country. Transylvania’s specific elements, which derive from its imperial heritage, are presently invoked only at symbolic level given that the national state still exists today and that its project was a success. The study provides an example of transcending symbolic borders, and discusses the historical and identity foundations of Transylvania’s current status as part of Romania and the European Union.


Transylvania, identity, Empire, national-state, region


Administrative Integration of Bukovina in the Administration Structures of Romania (1918–1925)           213

Gheorghe Calcan

Administrative integration of Bukovina in the administration structures of Romania – 1918-1925

The Union of Bukovina with Romania in 1918 simultaneously triggered the process of administratively reintegrating this province in the Romanian structures. The process was similar to the integration of other Romanian provinces administratively united in 1918, namely Bessarabia and Transylvania. This process was slow, respecting local administrative traditions and combining national legislation with the decisions coming from the center. The paper aims at analyzing the evolution of this process in which the adoption of 1923 Constitution and of the legislative unification law from 1925 were decisive landmarks.

Bukovina, administrative organization, administrative unification.


Borders and Ethnic Identities Reflected in Street Names from Transylvanian Localities      229

Oliviu Felecan

Borders and Ethnic Identities Reflected in Street Names from Transylvanian Localities

The present paper proposes an ethno-, socio- and psycholinguistic examination of contemporary names of Romanian streets and squares, starting from the identification and establishment on an onomastic level of identity markers in northwestern Transylvania, an area situated on the border between Romania, Hungary and Ukraine. The study aims at (1) collecting, studying and classifying street and square names from multilingual and multicultural localities; and (2) making a typology of the identities conveyed through names of public spaces (streets and squares) from the borderland area investigated, observing their specificity or the influence they may have suffered due to certain extra-linguistic factors (ethnic, political, administrative, cultural etc.).

street names, hodonyms, sociocultural, sociolinguistics, ethnic identities


Histoire et paysage. Perceptions et représentations de la nature en Transylvanie et
au Banat au XVIIIe siècle                                                                        

Doru Radosav
To approach the relation history – landscape in the 18th century Transylvania implies a historical and cultural interpretation of the perception and representation of nature that was synchronic with the European attitude and vision on nature and landscape when they were discovered and apperceived. Following the paths opened by the historical and geographical writings on Transylvania, the present research work tries to thematically structure and explain the representation of the landscape in the collective memory: landscape – nature, landscape- patrimony, landscape – physiocracy, landscape – utopia. The study intends to demonstrate that the perception of the landscape contributed to shape of the Transylvanian identity in the 18th century, the more so as, at mid century, it became the Great Principality of Transylvania within the Habsburg Empire. The article aims to scientifically describe the Transylvanian landscape by means of the baroque and pre-Romantic paradigm.

Landscape, patrimony, physiocracy, utopia, gardening art


Development of the Geography School Curriculum in Romania, from the 18th Century to 1989                                                         255

Maria Eliza Dulamã, Oana-Ramona Ilovan

Development of the Geography School Curriculum in Romania, from the 18th Century to 1989

In this study we analyze from pedagogical, geographical, and historical perspectives the development of Geography as a subject matter in Romania before communism (before 1944) and during communism (1944-1989), making connections with the national geographical literature and with the European one, chronologically correlated according to established historical studies. Our study fills in a gap present in the literature of geography, history, and education sciences, as before there were only disparate studies on this topic. We considered the criterion of relevance when analyzing and interpreting education laws, official documents (education plans, school curricula, methodologies, regulations, and school textbooks), the specialist literature (works on the Didactics of Geography, on Geography, on Pedagogy, etc.), experiences, and opinions. We used the textual analysis method for the official documents contents, image analysis, discourse analysis, and the community diagnostic. Our study has theoretical and practical importance for geographers, historians, and educators, because we analyzed with rigor and in detail the evolution and involution of Geography as a subject matter during three centuries, underlining the causes and conditions that determined changes and the changes of the Geography curriculum components as a result of each historical event and document.

education system, Geography as a subject matter, education reform, education law, textbooks, curricula

Regional Identities within the European Union                                     285

Cristian N. Boþan, Viorel Gligor, Ion H. Pavel, Silviu F. Fonogea


Regional Identities within the European Union

Case study: Țara Moþilor (Romania)

The present study tries to highlight the elements and values which help Þara Moþilor—a mountain region in the Romanian Carpathians—contribute to the European Union’s set of identity values. The way we thought of looking into this subject has a double aim, that is: (1) the identification and ranking of those elements that define the regional identity of Þara Moþilor, by analyzing scholarly works which focused on the abovementioned region and (2) the comparison between the scientific conclusions drawn from those works and the local perception of the most relevant elements and values that define the region in question. Thus, we analyzed a number of 14 scholarly works and, using the questionnaire method, queried a number of 320 people on this topic.

diversity, unity, regional identity, European Union, Þara Moþilor, authenticity, local community

Traditions, Adaptability and Trends                                                       307

Ștefan Dezsi, Nicolae Ciangã, Marius George Oprea, Raularian Rusu

Traditions, Adaptability and Trends: A Review of Higher Education and Research Tendencies in Tourism Geography in Romania

This paper provides an overview of the tourism supply in Romania, the research on the phenomenon of tourism, as well as the development of the higher education system in the field of Tourism Geography. Also, the paper presents the main development stages of this field of study starting with the research and capitalization of the natural resources (the research and capitalization of the mineral and thermal waters can provide an accurate example in this case) and of some existing anthropogenic elements. The research includes different thematic studies, based on thorough documentation. The resulting contributions were presented in different national and international scientific events. A special part is dedicated to the research and higher education developed in the field of tourism within Babeş-Bolyai University, at the Faculty of Geography in Cluj-Napoca. The vast and diverse bibliographical references include theoretical and applicative articles and studies, as well as monographic studies and doctoral theses.


Tourism, Tourism Geography, tourism geographical research, geographical school of tourism

• List of Authors                                                                                        318

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