Looking towards the Center Society and History in Europe

Vol. XXIII, Supplement No. 2, 2014

Looking towards the Center

Society and History in Europe


• The Rise to the Status of Province: The Countries of the Habsburg Empire
during their Adaptation/Alignment to the Center:
Papers of the Romanian-Austrian Scientific Conference of 17–19 October 2013      


‘The Rise to the Status of Province.’ Preliminary Observations               7

Harald Heppner


‚Aufstieg zur Provinz’. Einführende Betrachtungen                               11

Harald Heppner


The Establishment of the Banatian Military Border
and the Social Status of the Border Guards                                            

Nicolae Bocşan


The Establishment of the Banatian Military Border and the Social Status
of the Border Guards

The study presents the establishment of the Austrian military border in the Banat, the reasons which led the House of Habsburg to undertake the militarization of the Southern Banat, the stages in the organization of the Banatian military border, and the demographic evolution of the area. An overview is given of the legislation based on which the border was organized, the legal status of the residents, the economic and social system, the organization of the border family (comunion), the occupations of the inhabitants, the rights and obligations of the border guards and of the other inhabitants. The above data reveal a definitely advantageous status that the border region enjoyed in comparison with other territories inhabited by Romanians throughout the monarchy, the border guards’ superior cultural level, as well as their superior geographical and intellectual horizon.


military border, border guards, Romanian-Illyrian Regiment, frontier law, comunion


Habsburgs westlichster Außenposten: Die Österreichischen Niederlande
in ihren Beziehungen zur Wiener Regierung (1714-1795)                      

Renate Zedinger


Habsburgs westlichster Außenposten. Die Österreichischen Niederlande in ihren Beziehungen zur Wiener Regierung (1714-1795)

In the peace treaty from Utrecht, Rastatt und Baden (1713/1714) Karl IVth was assigned, beside certain Italian territories, the southern Belgian provinces named “Austrian Netherlands”. Even if he considered himself to be a legitimate successor of the Spanish Habsburgs, he wasn’t able, from military point of view, to impose his demands. Following a phase of consolidation and peace, these provinces developed into an important economic area. Under the governance of Kaunitz, the provinces experienced a new orientation, when the plan was for them to be transformed from a Habsburg conglomerate if not in a territorial totum, but at least into a central administrative state structure. Whereas the state chancellor tried protecting the bestowed privileges, the Josephinic reforms let to an uprising and to the loss of the provinces.


Austrian Netherlands in 18th century, Governor Prince Eugen, Governor Karl Alexander von Lothringen, State Chancellor Kaunitz, Josephinic Reforms, Brabant Revolution


Der Widerstand Tirols gegen den Zentralstaat in der Zeit der napoleonischen Kriege: Zwischen historischer Wirklichkeit und posthumer Idealisierung                                               37

Andreas Oberhofer


The Tyrolese Resistance to the Central State in the Era of the Napoleonic Wars: Between Historical Reality and Posthumous Idealization

The article offers a view on the period of the Napoleonic Wars in the Tyrol. A time of crisis and transformation, troop movements and quartering, and finally the period of Bavarian rule caused a sense of discontent, which eventually led to the 1809 insurrection. Elements such as the supposedly illegitimate government, the tradition of refusing everything “new” and conserving the traditional and, last but not least, a heightened consciousness of being a nation also led to the uprising. The propaganda for the insurrection was spread mainly by agents of the Viennese court and there existed a considerable difference between rural and urban mentalities. The established traditions of a “war of liberty” and a “peasants’ war” are interesting for an analysis of the relation between province and “center.”The study also looks at how reforms and perceived pressure were enforced and implemented, at how politics actually worked. We recognize the antagonisms between the corporate representatives and the authorities of the central state, but also the problematic relations between the state deputies in the “province” and the local élites.


Tyrol, province, state, Austria, reform, government, illegality, Andreas Hofer, memoir, rule


Provinz versus Metropole: Eine „Erziehung zur Nation“ aus der Provinz      49

Dieter A. Binder


Province versus Metropolis. A “Development to Nation” in the Province

With the royal court no longer itinerant, permanent towns of residence were established.Their political, intellectual and economic appeal led to a characteristic growth in the early modern era in central Europe, whereas the commercial and trading towns experienced a real crisis, which could only be overcome by industrialization, depending on their participation to this process. MariaTheresa’s and above all Joseph’s reforms were meant to create a modern administration and eventually a modern state system, eliminating the last feudal elements of territorial organization. The annulment of fiscal privileges, the precise registration of ownership relations, the gradual liberation of the peasants, the professionalization of the administration, the reform of the military training system, and especially, the establishment of a modern education system for officials, eliminated the privileged position of the aristocracy. The policy of religious tolerance introduced by Joseph II facilitated the access of the Protestant aristocracy to top bureaucratic positions, and professionalization also granted to some representatives of the bourgeoisie access to such positions. Changes in the economic framework following political restructuring also affected the road network and trade, and shaped the railroad construction program.


Maria Theresa, Joseph II, administrative reform, territorial administration, public officials, bureaucracy


The Problem of Establishing the Military Border in Bukovina (1774–1786)   63

Mihai-Ştefan Ceauºu


The Problem of establishing the Military Border in Bukovina (1774–1786)

In 1774, the annexation of Bukovina by the Habsburgs raised the question of the introduction of a military regime into the new province. General Spleny’s proposal was not accepted and it was decided to introduce an interim military Administration subordinated to the Aulic War Council in Vienna. Emperor Joseph II oscillated between the idea of establishing ​​a military border, the division of territory between Transylvania and Galicia, or that of the introduction of a civilian rule. In 1780, the Romanian elite reacted, with the Enlightenment boyar Vasile Balº demanding from Vienna the preservation of the province’s integrity under the existing military Administration. Joseph II finally gave up the idea of military border and decided, in 1786, to introduce the civil administration and to include Bukovina in the great Slav province of Galicia, abolishing the provincial autonomy held since the annexation.


Bukovina, military border, military Administration, Joseph II, Romanian elite, Galicia


A Frenchman Wandering through the Banat: The Border Regiment from Caransebeº
in Marshal Marmont’s Travel Accounts (1834)                                      

Ion Cârja


A Frenchman Wandering through the Banat: The Border Regiment from Caransebeº in Marshal Marmont’s Travel Accounts (1834)

In 1834, Marshal Marmont undertook a long journey in the Orient, which began in Vienna, crossed the territory of Hungary, the Banat, Transylvania and Bukovina, whence he travelled through the south of Russia, the Middle East, Egypt, etc. A section of this travelogue—covering a period of about two weeks, from 29 April 1834, when he crossed the Mureº River, entering Arad, until 15 May, when he was in Bistriþa, heading towards Bukovina through the Eastern Carpathians—is dedicated to the Banat and Transylvania. His records reveal a subtle observer, with mature assessments, able to select the most relevant and representative aspects of the reality he encounters. His considerations on the Banatian and, further, the Transylvanian space, target a wide array of issues, ranging from the region’s natural scenery and resources, history, and culture, or the multi-ethnic and multi-confessional communities living here, to peculiar features and details of a military nature—a favourite detail that recurs frequently in the pages of his memories.


Marshal Marmont, Banat, border regiment, Caransebeº, military border, memoirs


L’historien en tant que participant : le témoignage d’un Saxon de Bistriþa
sur la Révolution de 1848-1849 en Transylvanie                                     

Ioan Bolovan, Adrian Onofreiu, Liana Lãpãdatu


The Historian as a Participant: The Account of a Bistriþa Saxon concerning the Transylvanian Revolution of 1848-1849

The present study turns to good account the information concerning the Transylvanian Revolution of 1848–1849 found in a text written by army officer Karl Klein and devoted to the history of the Romanian Second Border Regiment of Nãsãud, from its establishment in 1763 until the year 1866. Apart from his native German, the author was also fluent in Romanian and Hungarian, which allowed him a direct experience of the political, economic and social Transylvanian realities of that time. In the summer of 1848, Karl Klein enlisted as a volunteer in the Romanian Second Border Regiment. He was promoted to private first class on 10 October 1848 and then to corporal, on 1 April 1849. As a member of the unit led by Colonel Carl Urban, he participated in all the operations carried out within and without the province during the revolution and the civil war. Karl Klein established a strong bond of camaraderie with the Romanian members of the border regiment, sharing with them the experiences of the military campaigns of 1848–1849. He witnessed the bravery and the loyalty to the emperor and to the House of Austria displayed by the Romanians, and saw what they could do on the battlefield, in keeping with their pledge of allegiance to the emperor in Vienna. The troubled history of the Transylvanian Romanians, with centuries of exclusion from political and cultural privileges affecting this majority population, left its imprint upon this young man, whom his superiors repeatedly described as a good professional and also as a “beloved comrade, friendly, polite and modest, spending his time amongst his brothers in arms” (most of them Romanians).


Transylvania, the Revolution of 1848–1849, Romanian-Hungarian-German relations, Romanian Border Regiment of Nãsãud


Der „Aufstieg der Provinz“ am Beispiel der Entwicklung
der österreichischen Universitäten, 1848–1918                                        

Elmar Schübl


The Rise to the Status of Province
as Illustrated by the Development of Universities, 1848–1919

The article displays how the in 1848 initiated modernization of the universities in the Habsburg Empire fostered the process of alignment between the crown lands and Vienna, the dynastic capital. The academic careers of Earth scientists and the development of university buildings will serve as example for this process of alignment. Austrian universities soon advanced to institutions of research and teaching and further rose to places of nationalism. The scientific alignment between the crown lands and the dynastic capital strengthened those processes that caused the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire and finally lead to the formation of several nation states.


Habsburg Empire, Austrian Universities (1848–1918), Modernization, Nationalism, Earth Sciences, University Buildings


Herrschaftsverdichtung fernab vom Zentrum: Probleme der Implementierung neuer Vorstellungen und Machtrelationen am Beispiel Tirols                                                         105

Margret Friedrich


Strengthening of Authority (Herrschaftsverdichtung) far from the centre:
Problems of implementing new conceptions and relations of power using the example of the Tyrol

The topic of the essay is related to the subtitle of the congress especially to the question how the process of state-wide consolidation and standardisation worked in the Tyrol with its (postulated) very special historical situation. After briefly outlining the structures of administration established by Maria Theresa and Joseph II., the actions and re-actions of people towards this new structure of government are analysed: – the „Staatsdiener“ (administrators) at the top of the state (Land) of the Tyrol (Gubernium) and at medium level (administrative district, Kreis), the range of influence and the (non-)existence of their power due to their position (Zwangsmacht) or due to their individual reputation (Ansehensmacht); – the „Verwaltete“ (people being administrated) at medium level and at the lowermost level, the towns and the rural administrative units (Gerichte); – the estates as the official representatives of the state (or „being the state“) at the diet of 1790.

The 1782 protocols of the Kreishauptmann´s vistitation of the administrative district Unterinnthal show the accurate modus operandi of this authority—the questions are standardized as far as possible and portray the duties and responsibilities of a Kreishauptmann in the Tyrol, as formulated in 1754. Reading the answers, noted down by the recording clerk, it can be seen that people refused to respond to some questions, and that, especially in the fields of religion, education and economic activities, the mental change necessary for the implementation of the reforms had not yet taken place. The report dealing with the situation in the administrative district of Oberinnthal, urged by the governor in 1795, is written by an officer who was inter alia responsible for education in this district and therefore knew the conditions in detail. He revealed the informal relations of power in the communities against which the representatives of the central government were obviously powerless. The predominant members of the 1790 diet militated strongly against all the centralisation-supporting measures. They venerated Leopold as the sovereign of the Tyrol, their „state“ was Tyrol and not a centralised monarchy involving all hereditary lands, and the frontiers of the Tyrol were the frontiers of the land of their fathers. To refer to the conference´s subtitle again – for Tyrol becoming a province would not have been an up- but a downgrade.


Tyrol, 18th century, cultural history of administration, strengthening of authority, re-actions of the subjects


Die wirtschafts- und sozialpolitischen Zusammenhänge der theresianischen
Religionspolitik in Siebenbürgen in den 1760-er und 1770-er Jahren 

Kálmán Árpád Kovács


The Economic and Social-Political Context of the Theresian Religious Policy
in Transylvania in the 1760s and 1770s

One of the most important historical features of Transylvania was religion, seen in connection with its confessional, ethnic and national diversity. The present study aims to deal with the connection between religion and economic and social policy. To this regard, the author has analyzed several archive portfolios in Vienna and Budapest. The “system” was a key term in the statistical perception of the Theresian Religious Policy. It contains the most important basic principles and objectives established by the higher authorities, in order to prevent the future adoption of contradictory decisions. The three main components of the Theresian Religious Policy in the 1760s and 1770s were: 1. The so-called general religious issues (Religiosa in genere); 2. The Catholic Religious Policy, subsequently also called Publico-ecclesiastica; 3. The so-called Union Issue/Unionsgeschäft. Following the individual measures in these areas, the characteristics of Theresian Religion Policy of the 1760s–1770s can be summarized as follows: it was conservative, confessionally oriented, state religious. There existed an irreconcilable tension between intolerance and tolerance. Nevertheless, this religious policy brought about such a modernization in Transylvania, that its consequences can only be compared with Brukenthal’s fiscal reform and the establishment of military border regiments.


denominations, confessional policy, economic and social policy, system, Transylvania


Tiefer Fall oder Anschluss an das Reformzeitalter? Die Wahrnehmung von Salzburgs Umbauprozess zu einer österreichischen Provinz im frühen 19. Jahrhundert                            132

Ellinor Forster


Decline or the Beginning of Reforms? An Outlook on the Transformation
of Salzburg into an Austrian Province in the Early 19th Century

The former Electorate Salzburg and Berchtesgaden came to Austria after the Peace Treaty of Pressburgof 1805. This first belonging to Austria lasted only until 1809, when Salzburg, after a few months of French occupation, got awarded to Bavaria until 1816. Being a part of Austria again after 1816, Salzburg lost its status of a territory within the Habsburg monarchy. This loss usually overshadowed the first time of Salzburg with Austria. The aim of this article is to have a precise look on the years 1806 until 1809 and how the process of becoming an Austrian province was perceived by contemporaries – by means of two diaries and one memory of leading officials. Above all, they described the loss of the self-dependence and the bad impact of the economic incorporation, but they seemed also to take advantages of some new developments.


Salzburg, Berchtesgaden, Early 19th Century, Perception of the Incorporation, Diaries and memories of Leading Officials


Eine Provinz und zwei Verwaltungsformen:
die Banater Militärgrenze und das Banater Montangebiet                  

Rudolf Gräf


One Province and Two Administrative Systems:
Highland Banat and the Banat Military Border

After the Habsburg occupation of Banat, in the southern part of the province, chiefly a land of mountains and hills, the Austrian authorities sought to use the local mineral resources in an attempt to revitalize the economy. The province was therefore organized so as to provide a maximum amount of mineral resources (non-ferrous or ferrous metals). The Banat Highlands were organized into several mountain offices, under the authority of the Banat Mining Directorate. A few decades later, given the lingering Ottoman threat (the war of 1737/1739) and building on the experience of the 16th century military border, the imperial authorities decided to extend the military border into Banat and also into Transylvania, Eastern Banat being organized in keeping with the model of the Austrian military border. Both the civilian and the military types of organization would influence the later development of Banat, and their effects are still felt in the local way of life, values, settlement structure, etc.


Highland Banat, military border, cultural-geographic unit, the Banat Estate of the StEG 1855–1920


An der Zeitenwende – Der Temeschwarer Kongress von 1790            185

Philipp Hochbaum


The Dawn of an Era: The Congress of Timişoara of 1790

In the late eighteenth century, the poly-ethnic Orthodox community of the Habsburg Empire has been characterized by an increase in the shift of loyalties. Both, Serbs and Romanians still considered the Metropolis of Sremski Karlovci and their common, artificially created and confessionality-based “Illyric Nation” the basis of a shared identity. In order to define its legal position in Hungary and thus in the Habsburg empire, an assembly was held in Temesvar in August 1790. Some of the postulations then showed that emerging national identities began to spread among the Orthodox leading to an emerging loyalty shift towards new national concepts based on ethnicity. Furthermore, these were also promulgated by social strata outside clerical structures, such as the still emerging bourgeoisie or the nobility, whose representatives were also aiming towards a broader participation within the Hungarian legal system. Thus, the 1790 assembly and the following years represent a transition period in terms of national identity, its mutual perception and its promulgating groups.


modern national identity, loyalty shift, confessionality, multiethnic society, competing nationalisms

• Varia                                                                                                             

Der Einfluss des byzantinischen Empfangszeremoniells
auf die Eroberung Konstantinopels durch die Kreuzfahrer               

Vlad Sofronie


The Influence of the Byzantine Court Ceremonial in the Reduction of Constantinople Through the Crusaders

First I want to present in this essay the influence the Byzantine court ceremonial had in the relations between Constantinople and the Latin world. Secondly I try to show why the relations between the two Christianities got more tensioned and why the crusaders felt as if they were humbled by the rituals from Constantinople. The main conclusion of the study is that this ceremonial had not a primary influence in the reduction of Constantinople in 1204. Through the imperial ceremonial the Byzantines tried to glorify their emperor and to intimidate the foreign guests. There was a big cultural barrier between the two Christianities but it was used in order to fulfill the economical, ideological and religious ambitions of the Occident. At the end of the 12th century the Byzantine Empire was criticized in all its areas. The cultural aspect couldn’t have been neglected by the Western chroniclers. The critics against the Byzantine court ceremonial were more a pretext for the true intentions of the Western world. The cultural differences could have been passed out but only if there was an interest to do it. The court ceremonial has only a secondary role in the reduction of Constantinople in the year 1204.


ceremonial, Constantine VII Porphyrogenetus, crusaders, rituals, proskynesis, symbols


The Functional Territorial Units in the Transylvanian
Geographical Space during the 13th–19th Centuries                           

Cãlin Cornel Pop, Diana Moisuc


The Functional Territorial Units in the Transylvania geographical
space during the 13th–19th centuries

Transylvania,” or “Ardeal,” are two names commonly used to refer to the Romanian territory covering the entire western side of the Carpathian Alps. Favored by its particular and, at the same time, outstanding individuality of its geography, by its unique ethno-demographic base, its distinct economic system and specific social and administrative structures, such as the royal commissariats, the districts, the judgeships, the sub-districts (centre-nettings), the pashaliks, the principalities, the seats, the boroughs, but, mostly by its own system statuses and spatial-temporal institutions of political and cultural type. All these are the result of a long process of historical evolution, for the administrative unity of Transylvania is the clear consequence of the inter-clashing of a great diversity of historical factors of joint manifestations and mutual conditioning, which generated complementary relationships amongst its regions. They created life environments of extraordinary economic potential, each area having a well-defined structure that enabled them to support one another. Their reunion laid the basis of the overall harmony of today’s Transylvania.


Seats, Boroughs (oppidum), Districts, Principalities, Royal Commissariats, Judgeships, pashaliks, Centre-nettings, Regions.


Old Legal Institutions: Beating the Bounds                                            216

Iosif Florin Moldovan


Old Legal Institutions. Beating the Bounds

The wager of law represents an excellent opportunity for examining the types of legal evidence used in former times. A special institution that emerges as a subcategory of the compurgators—perambulators or boundary witnesses—shows how estate boundaries were confirmed and how the plots of land were demarcated. Like nowadays, back then land was the most valuable asset, and it was natural that it should have aroused fierce disputes amongst its potential owners. In these cases, the institution of perambulation, also known as processioning or beating the bounds, proved its efficiency. The manner in which it was enforced—from wearing a swath of land on one’s head, to carrying a bag filled with earth on one’s shoulders, to squabbles by the boundary markers—proves the importance with which this institution was invested, also attested by the numerous documents in which it is described.


legal institutions, perambulation, beating the bounds, processioning


An Early Cartoon on the Discovery of X-Rays in a Romanian Satirical Journal       226

Liliana M. Rogozea, Florin Leaºu, Dinu I. Dumitraºcu, Dan L. Dumitraºcu


An Early Cartoon on the Discovery of X-Rays in a Romanian Satirical Journal:
“Cea mai perfectã aplicaþiune a invenþiunei Roentgen“

The discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895 represented a major event, but the future implications of the discovery were not yet clear at that time, even for specialists. Experiments with Roentgen’s rays quickly spread across Europe and X-rays were soon presented in many prestigious journals such as the British Medical Journal and Nature. Their discovery was also mentioned in the nonmedical press, i.e. the Pall Mall Gazette. In the same year (1895), in Romania, Dragomir Hurmuzescu and Gheorghe Marinescu first started experiments with X-rays, and in 1896 Constantin Severeanu performed the first X-ray examination in a Romanian hospital. We report here on very early cartoon from a Romanian satirical magazine, Nikipercea, published in February 1896. This is a sign of the popularity of Roentgen’s X-rays discovery among laypeople. To our knowledge, this is one of the first cartoons dedicated to X-rays in the world. The presentation of this very early satirical cartoon is presented in the context of the first steps in the development of radiology.


cartoon, history of medicine, Roentgen, X-rays, satirical magazine


Gheorghe P. Pamfil (1883–1965): The Founder of the Romanian Pharmaceutical
Higher Education in Cluj                                                                        

Cristian Bârsu


Gheorghe P. Pamfil (1883–1965): The Founder of the Romanian Pharmaceutical Higher Education in Cluj

Gheorghe P. Pamfil (1883–1965) was the founder, organizer and the chief of the Romanian Pharmaceutical higher education in Cluj between 1920 and 1934. Pamfil was professor of chemical and galenic pharmacy at the Pharmacy Section of the Faculty of Medicine in Cluj, director of the Pharmaceutical Institute of the same Faculty and the chief of Pharmacy at the University Hospitals in Cluj. In 1930 he collaborated with Prof. Iuliu Moldovan for creating a very progressive sanitary law.

Pamfil patented new drugs, among which we mention the Iodobismuthte of cinchona–also called “Bismjochin–Pamfil” and the “Ozonogen Iacobovici–Pamfil,” the last being the favorite antiseptic in Cluj surgical clinics between 1930 and 1940.

In 1934 he was transferred at the Faculty of Pharmacy in Bucharest, because the Section of Pharmacy in Cluj ceased its activity.


Gh. P. Pamfil, pharmaceutical education in Cluj, the Pharmaceutical Institute, the Pharmacy of the University Hospitals in Cluj, the Sanitary Law of 1930.


The Transylvanian Health Campaign of 1938                                       242

Florin Leaºu, Liliana Rogozea


The Transylvanian Health Campaign of 1938

Disease prevention has been a major concern for those working in healthcare in Romania. The first part of the twentieth century witnessed a dramatic battle against infectious diseases and the development of social medicine. Since the latter part of the nineteenth century, the health authorities of Romania had sought various ways for systematically organizing public healthcare. Remarkable progress had been made even before the First World War, with the organization of healthcare in rural areas, the use of preventive vaccination methods, the mandatory declaration of contagious diseases etc.

Health campaigns represented a form of discovering new cases of disease, sanitizing localities and educating the population for health and health promotion. Several health campaigns took place in the first half of the 20th century, but none was so comprehensive, or acted on so many levels, or had the results of the 1938 health campaign.


health campaign, social diseases, infectious diseases, hygiene, sanitation


Law Studies in Romania prior to 1860: Historical Evolution,
Convergence and Divergence at European Level                                 

Oana Iucu


Law Studies in Romania prior to 1860—Historical Evolution, Convergence and Divergence at European Level

Interestingly enough, the historical evolution of law studies in Romania has gone together with the development of the main European education systems in general and with that of the legal education systems in particular, in either the divergent or the convergent sense of those systems’ emergence and development. The analysis we have performed brings in, from the standpoint of our own scientific contribution, a broader perspective on the main education institutions providing legal training, by characterizing and integrating those institutions in the historic contexts specific for the major social and cultural stages of humankind. Our intention is to prove, using the historical analysis method as well as the study of educational documents stored with the National Archives of Romania, that the Romanian education-related institutions and practices in the legal field (Law Studies) have known both developments and involutions similar to the major European institutions of this kind. As part of the Old Continent, Romania has also been permanently seeking synchronicity. We cannot ascertain that it has indeed found it, but the research work has been certainly done thoroughly and its results are worth being made known to the scientific community around the world.


law studies, Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania, education system, law schools, higher education


Histoire de la comptabilité dans un espace central-européen. Une approche critique 263

Adela Deaconu, Gheorghe Fãtãcean, Crina Ioana Filip


Accounting history in a Central Eastern European space: A critical approach

This study shows the interaction between the economic factors and the progress of Romanian accounting, especially in Transylvania, between the 16th and 20th centuries. It offers an overview of the accounting changes in relation with the periodization outlined by the economic progress of the region. A significant finding of this study is the delay of the Transylvanian accounting as compared to the European progress, illustrated by its characteristics under Practices, Propagation and Profession, which was initially of approximately three and sometimes four-five centuries, and then progressively decreased. This finding is supported by the analysis of the accounting responsiveness to economic necessities generated by the market. This research demonstrates how this delay was due to the slow development in the region, especially of the capitalist relations stimulating the development of trade, crafts and industry.



history, accounting, economic environment, trade, industry, capitalism, Transylvania


Personal Networks As a Source for Social Capital
in the Rural Communities of Maramureş                                              

Sonia Catrina


Personal Networks as a Source for Social Capital in the Rural Communities of Maramureş

The purpose of this paper is to analyze personal networks developed by guesthouse owners from rural Maramureş as a source for social capital. We are questioning the relevance of the economic factor to guesthouse owners and the role it plays in establishing borders and openings of their personal networks. In trying to identify functional interdependencies, we wonder whether the rural tourism from Maramureş subjects the relationship among rural guesthouse owners to an exercise in reflexivity. To test this argument, we want to know whether the rural world is able to align itself with modernity by assuming the power of individual action, by a rationalization of the actions of tourist rural actors called here “tourist entrepreneurs”. Where does a relationship end for guesthouse owners when they relate to other tourist entrepreneurs? Does tourism generate conflicts among these people, exclusion, and antagonism or, on the contrary, solidarity? Can we talk about solidarity born from professional practices? What element prevails in establishing personal networks: kinship, neighbourhood, friendship or obligation deriving from a superior status?


“tourist entrepreneurs”, personal networks, social capital, entrepreneurial strategies, Maramureş.


Leadership Versus Personal Life for Female Managers: Case Study Transylvania   293

Anuþa Buiga, Codruþa Mare


Leadership Versus Personal Life for Female Managers. Case study Transylvania

The present paper investigates the influence of leadership upon the lives of the women in such positions in the North-Western Region of Romania. Using a sample of 207 female leaders we test a series of hypotheses meant to assess the way their family and social life has changed after getting the executive position. Results show that regardless of the “price”, the majority of the sample would choose the same position. This puts into light the fact that women are willing to sacrifice their personal life in order to have the status and money brought by being in the top management. Additionally, women tend to delay the moment of having a family provided this did not happen before becoming a leader. The relationships with friends and family are affected as this type of women has to work extra at home, even during week-ends. We also asked the participants to the survey to rank the importance of family, career, leisure and money. In the end, instead of conclusions, we present the opinions of the women managers related to the position of the woman in Romania, in general, and of the woman in top executive positions, in particular. 


leadership, female, Transylvania, family, beliefs, statistic analysis


The European Union’s 2020 Strategy: Some Observations                  304

Petru Filip, Emilian M. Dobrescu


The European Union’s 2020 Strategy. Some Observations

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