Transylvanian Review nr. 4/2007

  • Ioana Bot, La construction du « poete national » dans la culture roumaine, p. 3
  • Abstract - Constructing the Image of the ‘National Poet’ in Romanian Culture - Reviewing the history of a major cultural construct central to modern Romanian culture, that of the “national poet” Mihai Eminescu, the study examines the manner in which political ideology made its presence felt in the reification of national identity, focusing on the blatant misinterpretations of the literary work belonging to Mihai Eminescu, the great Romanian poet of early modernism.
  • Keywords: Mihai Eminescu, political ideology and culture, reification, cultural construct
  • Oana Fotache,The Sociology of Literature and of Reading in Paul Cornea’s Works, p. 16
  • Abstract - The Sociology of Literature and of Reading in Paul Cornea’s Works -The paper focuses on the activity carried out by the literary historian and theorist Paul Cornea in the field of literary sociology, a field which has been the object of much controversy in Romania. The study seeks to demonstrate how Cornea’s sociological approach to fiction took into account the complexity and the particular nature of the latter, thus managing to avoid any reductive explanation of the literary process. The study focuses on both the recourse to a sociological approach (mostly in the analysis of Romantic and post-Romantic literature) and on its theory, as featured in the books published by Paul Cornea beginning with the 1970s.
  • Keywords: sociology of literature, theory of reading, literary history, critical method, text and context
  • Adrian Tudurachi, Composition et decomposition d’un projet identitaire, p. 22
  • Abstract - The Composition and Decomposition of an Identity Project - In 1942, at a time when national specificity was being defined on the basis of metaphysical, anthropological or psychological models, D. Caracostea’s Expresivitatea limbii române (Expressiveness of the Romanian language) came to propose a rather unique identity project. For the first time, the language was “national” not in terms of what it expressed, but in what concerned the structure of its forms. Thus, Romanian identity was defined not by a “Romanian feeling,” but rather by a certain taste, manifest in the invention and selection of linguistic signs. This approach to the identity project brought the Romanian theorist very close to the issues of artistic creation. As a “product of taste,” language became de facto one great literary text, forcing D. Caracostea to transfer to it the unique categories pertaining to style. The problem is that style is defined though a movement of forms and by testing the limits of language. Built on this very paradox, the in­ ves­ ti­ gation carried out by the Romanian scholar revealed the presence in language of certain aspects that refused all classification, of incongruent relations, of unsolvable semantic concentrations. Symptomatically, they appeared under the sign of the “Slavic element,” that is, of the foreign component. The present study seeks to piece together the internal architecture of Caracostea’s approach, in an attempt to understand how its own premises eventually generated a counter-project which came to question the very possibility of language being an identity element.
  • Keywords: D. Caracostea, expressiveness, stylistics of language, national identity, taste (in language)
  • Raluca Lupu-Onet, Marie Darrieussecq: Truismes ou la métamorphose au feminine, p. 45
  • Abstract - Marie Darrieussecq: Truismes or the Feminine Metamorphosis - Centered on the motif of the metamorphosis as a pretext for a mise en abîme of the novel itself, Marie Darrieussecq’s book provides the opportunity for an intertextual voyage articulated on the writing of the body, of the feminine body, seen as the repository of the alienation experienced by the whole world. By following the metamorphosis experienced by the heroine of Truismes, we uncover the intimate dynamics of the narrative mechanisms employed by a writer minutely interested in an art involving the generic deconstruction of the novel.
  • Keywords: contemporary French novel, fantastic, deconstruction, feminine fiction, metamorphosis
  • Corin Braga, L’Atlantide platonicienne, l’Avalon celtique et les utopies atlantiques, p. 60
  • Abstract - Plato’s Atlantis, the Celtic Avalon, and Atlantic Utopias - The extraordinary voyages of 17th–19th century utopianists seemed to follow the fantastic geography of medieval maps. The imaginary expeditions of the Middle Ages and the modern utopian voyages were aimed at similar versions of the archetype of the “ideal place”: the Earthly Paradise, the Islands of the Blessed, the Elysian Fields, Mag Mel, Avalon, the City of Man. In order to reach Utopia, one had to complete the fantastic itinerary which led to the gardens of the gods in ancient mythologies, to the Earthly Paradise of the Christians or to the isle of women, the Celtic Avalon. The present study surveys a number of classical utopias which locate the ideal city in the Atlantic or the Americas, following the myth of Plato’s Atlantis, the Irish legends and the messianic visions of Christopher Columbus: Bręve description de l’État d’Eudémonie by Gaspar Stiblin, L’Isle des Hermaphrodites by Artus Thomas, The New Atlantis by Francis Bacon, A Description of the Famous Kingdome of Macaria by Gabriel Plattes, O’Brazile, or the Inchanted Island by Richard Head, Sethos, Histoire ou vie tirée des monumens by Abbot Jean Terrasson, Relation du voyage de l’isle d’Eutopie by François Lefebvre, Les femmes militaires by Louis Rustaing de Saint-Jory, Les Isles Fortunées, ou Les Aventures de Bathylle et de Cléobule by Julien-Jacques Moutonnet-Clairfons, etc.
  • Keywords: Earthly Paradise, Utopia, Atlantic, Atlantis, Avalon
  • Laura Lazar Zavaleanu, L’Éloquence du chronotope dans la littérature roumaine ancienne:  l’espace-temps de l’écriture et de la lecture, p. 77
  • Abstract - The Eloquence of Space-Time in Old Romanian Literature: the Space-Time of Writing and of Reading in Old Romanian Literature - Presenting not only the events, but also the pace of life, the social dynamics and the sensibility of that time, old Romanian literature reveals the dramatic nature of existence, the acute tempo of life, but also the moments of calm and relaxation, of peaceful meditation enjoyed by the people of that time. Fictional pieces come to provide a nurturing and protective space, a pharmakon space likely to heal all the illnesses inflicted by the hardships of that time, and the world itself becomes a text whose meanings are decoded by a reader/writer defined as a homo viator, who finds both himself and the meaning of life in the pages of the book-garden, in a sort of philoxeny-writing/reading.
  • Keywords: logophoros, space-time of writing, space-time of reading, metaphors of the book, portrait of the writer, adjuvant reader, philoxeny-reading, the text as world, the world as text, life as writing, living text
  • Daniela Marza, The Schools of Blaj at the End of the 19th Century and at the Beginning of the 20th Century: A Few Historiographical Considerations, p. 96
  • Abstract - The Schools of Blaj at the End of the 19th Century and at the Beginning of the 20th Century: A Few Historiographical Considerations - The history of the Romanian Uniate (Greek-Catholic) Church was a taboo subject for historical researchers during the communist period. (This Church, given its pro-Western stance, was ban­ ned in 1948, its elite imprisoned and its assets seized.) The present study surveys the historiography dealing with the schools belonging to the archdiocese of Blaj (established in 1754) around the turn of the 20th century. The treatment of the topic in question traditionally involved a biased and eulogistic approach, deriving from the situation and the status of the Romanian Uniate Church, nearly always a “besieged fortress,” regardless of the historical and social-political context.
  • Keywords: religious schools, Romanian Uniate (Greek-Catholic) Church, Transylvania, historiography
  • Anton-Joseph Ilk, Hans Gehl, Ostmitteleuropäischen Sinnsprüche in häuslichen Bereichen, p. 118
  • Abstract - Folk Adages and Maxims in the Households of Eastern Europe - The authors analyze a number of Romanian adages and maxims (found in Transylvania, Maramureş, and Banat), comparing them to others circulating in Austria and Hungary. We are introduced to the origins and the purpose of these folk adages and maxims, special attention being given to those having a domestic content and carved on tombstones. In this case, the authors perform a comparison between the “MerryCemetery” of Săpânţa (Maramureş) and the “museum-cemetery of Kramsach/Tirol,” founded by Ion Pătraşcu Stan and by Hans Guggenberger, respectively. Also discussed are the adages and maxims sewn on textile materials, the authors analyzing their linguistic form, themes, and content.
  • Keywords: adages, maxims, epitaphs, Eastern Europe

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