Transylvanian Review Vol. XXIII No. 2 Summer 2014

• Paradigms

Boyar Families of Transylvanian Origin, Village Owners in Neamþ District     p.    3

Paul Daniel Nedeloiu

Abstract - Boyar Families of Transylvanian Origin, Village Owners in Neamþ District

(15th–17th Centuries)

Besides the local boyar families, several villages in Neamþ district were owned in the 15th–17th centuries by boyars whose names suggest a probable Transylvanian origin: Laslãu, Levet Miclouş, Laþco, Ioaniş, Urdiugaş, Birãu, Petru Ungureanul, etc. Their presence among the local landowners is due to the fact that their ancestors relocated east of the Carpathians in the second half of the 14th century, at the same time as the founders of Moldavia, and also later on. This study aims at highlighting, within a chronological approach, some aspects related to the families (ancestors and descendents), offices, landed estates and potential founding activities of three boyars from Neamþ with Hungarian-sounding names: Urdiugaş, Laslãu and Seachil.

Keywords - bloodline, boyar families, high officials, Moldavia, Transylvania


The Armenians in Iaşi (the First Half of the 18th Century): Economic and Social Aspects      p.   24

Gheorghe Iutiş

Abstract - The Armenians in Iaşi (the First Half of the 18th Century): Economic and Social Aspects

The study investigates the role and place of Armenians in Iaşi, during the first half of the 18th century. The author includes an introduction into the subject, in which he presents the way in which the Armenians settled east of the Carpathians, starting from the 14th century, as well as their evolution during the following centuries. Based on a corpus of recently published local sources, the author presents the main economic activities performed by the Armenians—bowmaking, shoemaking, tailoring, trading, peddling, as well as the roles that certain members of that community fulfilled—father superiors of the Armenian churches, deacons, priests, elders etc. By buying houses near the Armenian churches, by owning shops, vineyards, cellars, the Armenians in Iaşi represented a strong community in that town, with their own guilds, but also with representatives among the leaders of the town. The rich information in regard to the presence and role of Armenians in Iaşi encouraged us to undertake a partial investigation of the subject, which will be followed shortly by additional research focusing on the second half of the 18th century.

Keywords - Armenians, Iaşi, Moldavia, properties, privileges

Représentations identitaires en Moldavie au temps de la restauration des princes indigènes   p.    38

Cristian Ploscaru

Abstract - Representations of Identity in Moldavia after the Restoration of Native Rulers

In Moldavia, during the reign of Ioniþã Sandu Sturdza (1822–1828), we notice the influence of a certain phraseology about the nation, but without a true political substance, which could have been generated by references to the rights of the nation or to the national state. The concerns of the boyars for the common people, “subjected to all calamities and suffering,” and for the “poor country” have their origin, as before, in the old forms of community solidarity. The sources show that the political elite did not have, at that time, the cultural and political abilities necessary to express the country’s expectations and aspirations as national rights. In an obvious continuity with the endeavors of the past, documented throughout the entire eighteenth century, the exclusively native administration, under the protection of a Christian power, was the political ideal with which the local elite identified the nation’s interests, without stating, in their memoirs, clear ideas regarding the right to autonomy as a national right and, eventually, the necessity of a representative governing regime.

Keywords - motherland, nation, representations, discourse

The Evolution and Features of the Post-Totalitarian Political Regime in the Republic of Moldova     p.   49

Dorin Cimpoeşu

Abstract - The Evolution and Features of the Post-Totalitarian Political Regime in the Republic of Moldova

The study analyses the political governments in the recent history of Bessarabia (Republic of Moldova): the agrarian-frontist government (1990–1994); the agrarian-socialist government (1994–1998); the center-right Alliance for Democracy and Reforms government (1998–1999); the Dumitru Braghiş transitional government (1999–2001); the communist (restoration) government (2001–2009); the center-right Alliance for European Integration governments (2009–2012). The author attempts, for the first time, to define and chronologically frame the first governing regimes in the history of Bessarabia (Republic of Moldova) following its separation from the Soviet Empire and its declaration of independence. The paper also presents the features and characteristics of every gover­ nance; the political struggle for power and the political programs of the parties involved; the evolution of the local multi-party system; the emergence of the constitutional state and of a market economy; the adoption of the internal legislative framework; the orientation of the foreign policy; the management of the political and identity crises; the involvement of Russia in domestic policy; the accomplishments and failures of the six regimes, as well as many other aspects.

Keywords - Bessarabia, political parties, post-Soviet era, communist restoration

• Legacy

Kleine Geschichte der Ethnonyme Rumäne (Rumänien) und Walache (Walachei) (I)      p. 68

Ioan-Aurel Pop

Abstract - A Brief History of the Ethnonyms Romanian (Romania) and Wallachian (Wallachia)

As the modern Romanian state came into being fairly late and its official name, Romania, was adopted only in the second part of the 19th century, many foreign authors were confused by the dual usage of names such as Wallachia/Romania and Wallachian/Romanian. Since the Middle Ages, the Romanians had two names: one given to them by foreigners (following the contact with the “other,“ the neighbor), a name they never used for themselves and whose very existence they often ignored, and another, chosen and used by the Romanians themselves (an expression of their self-awareness). The first name mentioned here is that of vlah (Wallachian), with its variants (valah, valach, voloh, blac, oláh, vlas, ilac, ulah etc.), while the second is that of rumân/român (Romanian), which in its turn had some variants, but fewer than the former.

Keywords - ethnonyms, Roman origin, Middle Ages, Romanian countries


Der Bukowiner „Zwerg“ auf den Schultern  des Wiener „Riesen“ (II)    p. 87

Ana-Maria Pãlimariu

Abstract - The Bukovinian “Dwarf” on the Shoulders of the Viennese “Giant”: Wilhelm Stekel’s Exposure to Religion and Sexuality

The present article argues that Wilhelm Stekel, a psychoanalyst and Freud’s collaborator, experienced a threefold migration. Beyond the already existing research into his career, which can only account for two exiles (his separation from Freud and the exile to London) the present paper starts a new debate. One outcome of the investigation is that the psychoanalytical movement becomes an even more complicated context, because Stekel’s first exile, which has been so far neglected, was in the psychoanalytic society. Under Freud’s supervision, who would give Stekel case studies and would also review them in view of their publication, Stekel, in his representation of the Eastern Jewish sexual issues case studies, had to disguise the Eastern Jewish dimension, at the expense of another religion. After leaving the psychoanalytic society and after the split from Freud, Stekel could nevertheless autobiographically and technically apply both his Eastern Jewish origin and his (religious) knowledge about Bukovina. When reading Stekel’s work, before and after his collaboration with Freud, bringing together Jewish religion and sexuality, one can infer a Jewish complex with Freud and the absence of it with Stekel.

Keywords - psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Stekel, religion, sexuality as a cultural code

 • Philosophy

What Is Analytic Philosophy? General and Restrictive Concepts   p. 100

Mircea Flonta

Abstract - What Is Analytic Philosophy? General and Restrictive Concepts

Those who seek an answer to the question “What is analytic philosophy?” usually have in mind a form of philosophical analysis (for instance, placing the philosophy of language in the center of philosophical studies, or the use of modern logic tools). The attempts to settle the boundaries of “analytic philosophy” as a selfconsisting philosophy through its methods and objectives have, however, significant limitations. As a matter of fact, the term is used in order to refer to various ways of making philosophy which, despite many differences, all have in common the clearcut distinction with regard to philosophical traditions such as phenomenology, hermeneutics or postmodern philosophy. In this way, one can distinguish various concepts of analytic philosophy, either restrictive or broad. Despite this, some minimal conditions that characterize a kind of philosophy as analytic can be pointed out.

Keywords - analytic philosophy, ordinary language philosophy, logical analysis

• Tangencies

Two Historiographical Perspectives, One Historical Reality: the Nãsãud Military Border p.  119

Ioan Bolovan, Adrian Onofreiu

Abstract - Two Historiographical Perspectives, One Historical Reality: the Nãsãud Military Border

The authors investigate the perspectives adopted by two Romanian (Florian Porcius, Nestor Şimon) and two German authors (Karl Klein, Gustav Ritter Amon von Treuenfest), who explored various aspects pertaining to the Nãsãud military border. In terms of their accomplishments, the two Romanian historians provided an attitude model that was consistent with the realities of the periods in which they lived and wrote, showing, at the same time, that the Romanian society which had been the beneficiary of the border guard system was an equal partner in dialogue with those who had proposed and organized it. This attitude model had been beneficial for the government and the governed alike. The two German authors performed valuable synthetic overviews of the military history of the Nãsãud border regiment, setting the events related to this regiment against the background of the general political and military history of the Austrian monarchy and even of Europe. They did not intend to use the history of the regiment for any political or administrative purpose, but some descriptions provided sufficient examples that the Romanian political leaders adopted in their vindictive action in favor of the Transylvanian Romanians.

Keywords - Austrian military border, Transylvania, Romanians, Germans

• Agora

County-Level Demographic Disparities in Romania      p.  138

József Benedek, Ibolya Török

Abstract - County-Level Demographic Disparities in Romania

The information related to the profile of the population of a country constitutes a good starting point for the understanding of several social and economic aspects. At the same time, the demographic changes, both regionally and by residential environments, have implications on public policies (health, education systems, social services, transport infrastructure), and on the development potential of the entire country. The study is concerned with the demographic disparities in Romania, focusing on the basic question of regional studies, demography or economics: which are the spatial patterns of population distribution and what are the factors determining such distribution? We use in the study a combination of different demographic indicators for the description of regional inequalities in the spatial distribution of some demographical elements, at the level of the counties (judeþe).

Keywords - demographic disparities, population density, urbanization, migration, Romania

 • Book Reviews

Ioan-Aurel Pop, Cultural Diffusion and Religious Reformation in Sixteenth-Century Transylvania: How the Jesuits Dealt with the Orthodox and Catholic Ideas
(reviewed by Alexandru Simon)     p.  148

Harald Heppner and Eva Posch, eds., Encounters
in Europe’s Southeast: The Habsburg Empire and the Orthodox World in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
(reviewed by Ionela Zaharia) p. 149

Marius Eppel, La frontiera ortodoxiei româneşti: Vicariatul de la Oradea (1848–1918)
(reviewed by Liana Lãpãdatu)    p.  153

Maria Norberta Amorim, O Pico: A Abordagem de Uma Ilha, vol. 1: As Famílias,tome 10: As famílias da Candelária nos finais do século XIX
(reviewed by Daniela Mârza) p. 154

Marele Rãzboi în memoria bãnãþeanã (1914-1919),
vol. 2, Memoriile lui Pavel Jumanca
(reviewed by Lucian Turcu)  p. 154

 • Contributors 160

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