Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXII (Winter), No 4, 2013

Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXII (Winter), No 4, 2013

 

Contents/Sommaire

 

• Paradigms

Ovidiu Emil Iudean, Alexandru Onojescu, Politics, Nationalism, and Parliamentarianism: Romanian Representatives in the Budapest Parliament (1861–1918) • 3

AbstractPolitics, Nationalism, and Parliamentarianism: Romanian Representatives in the Budapest Parliament (1861–1918)After 1860, the national movement of the Romanians in the territories under Habsburg domination was influenced by the changes experienced at a political and administrative level. Its leadership witnessed a whole range of transformations. Among the Romanian national leaders, the representatives who were active in the Budapest Parliament constituted the most significant category in regard to the influence gained and the available means of political action. The present study aims to conduct a detailed analysis of the group of Romanian political representatives between 1861 and 1918 in order to ensure a more accurate understanding of their political orientations and their parliamentary actions.

Keywords – Austria-Hungary, national movement, parliamentary representatives, parliamentarianism, political orientations, electoral geography

 

Nicolae Bocşan, Liberalism and Nationalism in Alexandru Mocsonyi’s Parliamentary Activity (1865–1871) • 17

AbstractLiberalism and Nationalism in Alexandru Mocsonyi’s Parliamentary Activity (1865–1871)This study presents the parliamentary activity of Alexandru Mocsonyi (Mocioni), a political leader in Banat and a member of the Hungarian Parliament between 1865 and 1874. He was a remarkable politician and one of the most prominent personalities of Romanian liberalism in nineteenth–century Hungary. His parliamentary activity was very complex before 1872; he was well known for his speeches in the debates on the Law of Nationalities, the Law of Municipalities and the new Election Law in Transylvania, where he brought his contribution to the ideology of the national movement, based on a synthesis between liberalism and nationalism.

Keywords – Alexandru Mocsonyi (Mocioni), Hungarian Parliament, nationalism, liberalism



Andrea Fehér, The Political Message of the Electoral Speeches Published in the Hungarian Press of Cluj (1869–1910) • 32

AbstractThe Political Message of the Electoral Speeches Published in the Hungarian Press of Cluj (1869–1910) – The paper analyzes changes in the electoral discourse in Transylvania in the second half of the 19th century. More precisely, it reveals the general and not the official opinion related to the perception of the political system installed after the ratification of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise. Writings published in the newspapers sympathizing with various parties suggest that the basic concept most frequently used by the representatives of the governing party was that of (industrial) development, while the opposition meant to emphasize the agricultural character of Hungarian society, presenting the shortcomings of a hasty adaptation to the civilizing trends coming from the West. The present analysis suggests that there was a passionate political dialogue between the two political groups, even though their speeches in the electoral campaigns do not always reflect the attitudes of the politicians as indicated by the personal or archive sources of that time.

Keywords – electoral discourse, Hungarian press, political parties, 19th century

 

Judit Pál, The Representation of Transylvanian Towns in Parliament in the Period 1878–1910 • 46

AbstractThe Representation of Transylvanian Towns in Parliament in the Period 1878–1910The study analyzes the social-professional background of the deputies elected in Transylvanian urban constituencies between 1878 and 1910, seeking to determine to what extent their background and local connectedness changed in comparison to the beginning of the dualist period, and how certain tendencies regarding the correlation between the ethnic and professional structure of towns, illiteracy rates and the local attachment of deputies, which emerged at the beginning of the dualist period, developed later on. The study concludes that, in what concerns the parliamentary representation of towns, we can speak of an uneven modernization which reveals the general weaknesses of the Hungarian electoral system.

Keywords – deputies, Transylvania, urban constituencies, dualist period, social-professional background of deputies, local connectedness of deputies

 

Maria Ghitta, Dr. Ioan Mihu and the “Romanian-Hungarian Peace” of 1910: The History of a Failure • 68

AbstractDr. Ioan Mihu and the “Romanian-Hungarian Peace” of 1910: The History of a FailureThe paper discusses the failed Romanian-Hungarian negotiations of 1910, drawing on the memoirs of a direct participant, Dr. Ioan Mihu, a wealthy and well-educated Romanian landlord. After a presentation of this outstanding but otherwise little-known member of the Romanian Transylvanian elite, the paper discusses the various stages in the negotiations between the representatives of the Hungarian authorities of that time and the various representatives of the Romanian community in Transylvania. The perspective of Dr. Mihu, who found himself playing the role of go-between, is extremely valuable in this respect. Given the intransigence of both parties and a number of faux pas, the negations failed, compelling Mihu to withdraw from public life. Thus he had the opportunity to complete his memoirs, and he also had the strength and honesty to leave us his correspondence and a file with the press releases on the matter.

Keywords – Transylvanian Romanians, national struggle, Count István Tizsa, Dr. Ioan Mihu

 

• Tangencies

Iulian Mihai Damian, La fidelitas ripensata in età angioina: Le sue conseguenze politico-religiose sul confine sud-orientale del Regno d’Ungheria (II) • 86

AbstractThe Angevin Reflection on fidelitas and Its Political and Religious Consequences on the South-Eastern Border of the Kingdom of HungaryThe article offers a new perspective on the activity of the Franciscan vicariate of Bosnia in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and on its singular role of exercising religious and political control over the eastern rite population, assumed especially in the southern districts of the realm. It discusses the cultural, religious and political categories that influenced the new Angevin dynasty and its struggle to contain their autonomist tendencies. Especially the Franciscan friars, a highly educated itinerant elite, seems to have influenced the two Angevin kings, who embraced elements of their theosophical and political meditation, especially on matters such as fides and fidelitas, in their attempt to give major cohesion to the social body of the kingdom. The persistence over more than a century of the practice of conditional baptism imposed to the Greek-rite population constituted a fundamental aspect of those policies, with both confessional and socio-political implications.

KeywordsFranciscan vicariate of Bosnia, conditional baptism, medieval political thought

 

Ion Novăcescu, Communication and Propaganda in Romanian Interwar Politics: The Election Campaigns of 1919 and 1922 • 99

AbstractCommunication and Propaganda in Romanian Interwar Politics: The Election Campaigns of 1919 and 1922 – The electoral confrontation involved two political and media groups that vied for political power, as this would ensure their control over the Romanian resources, primarily over the oil reserves. On one side of the barricade were the National Liberal Party, the financial-banking oligarchy and the liberal press. This group was inspired by the doctrine of economic nationalism. On the other side were the parties and broadsheets that were opposed to the liberals and were financially supported by foreign capital, which sought to have open and unrestricted access to the Romanian mineral resources. Faced with such interests and realising, in the era of universal suffrage, that the party which would win the most votes would be in a position to draw up the Constitution and the mining laws, both groups made full use of political propaganda and communication to win the elections.

Keywords – communication, propaganda, election campaigns, political parties, the press, Romanian politics

 

Corneliu Pintilescu, Die Konstruktion politischer Vergehen im Diskurs: Eine vergleichende Analyse dreier Prozesse gegen Angehörige der deutschen Minderheit Rumäniens (1958–1962) • 116

AbstractConstructing Political Guilt: A Comparative Analysis of Three Political Trials Involving Members of the German Minority in Romania (1958–1962)This study deals with the process of constructing political guilt within three political trials, all of them involving members of the German minority in communist Romania. Based on the archives of the former Securitate and on testimonies of the survivals of these trials, the present contribution analyzes issues such as the stages in the construction of political guilt within communist Romania’s institutional system. The analysis discusses the internal and external constraints exerted on the aforementioned process, as well as the strategies and techniques used by the Securitate in the three cases analyzed. The study argues that the political guilt which legitimized the sentencing of the accused within these trials was mainly constructed through discursive means, the substance of the process consisting in the capture and translation of different discourses into the one issued by the Securitate, Military Procuracy and Courts.

Keywords – German minority in Romania, political repression, political trials, military justice

 

• Agora

Daniela Mârza, Revues roumaines d’histoire parues dans des langues de circulation internationale •141

AbstractRomanian History Journals Published in Foreign LanguagesRomanian historiography constantly took the Western world and culture as its reference points. The manner in which the Romanian historiography scientifically connects to the Western one is just one side of the problem. The other aspect is the way in which Romanian historiography makes its results known in the West. Since Romanian is not an international language, this latter aspect refers to publications in the main Western languages. History works written in such languages make Romanian historiography not only a receiver of Western accomplishments, but also a supplier of value; they make Romanian historiography a partner in an intellectual exchange. The Romanian history journals published in foreign languagesfulfill a dual function: on the one hand, the duration and frequency of occurrence and the prestigious name gained over time, are important elements in Romanian historiography in general. On the other hand, they are gateways for the Romanian research activity towards international scientific community, and an important tool for the dissemination of its results in the world, one of the ways in which Romanian science has contributed to the development of historical sciences in general.

KeywordsRomanian history journals, Romanian historiography, Western languages

 

• Book Reviews

Liviu Neagoe (ed.), Elite, naţiune şi societate în România modernă (reviewed by Liana Lăpădatu) • 154

Cosmin Popa, Între tentaţia imperiului şi alianţa strategică: urss şi Europa Centrală şi de Est (1941–1953) (reviewed by Florian Dumitru Soporan) • 155

Mădălina Diaconu, De gustibus: Breviar de gastrosofie (reviewed by Hans Dama) • 158

 

• Contributors      160

 

 

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