Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXII (Autumn), No 3, 2013

Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXII (Autumn), No 3, 2013


 • Paradigms

Maria Crîngaci Ţiplic, The Archaeology of Noble Residences in Transylvania: The Residences of the Transylvanian Saxon Elite (12th Century–First Half of the 13th Century) • 3

Abstract The Archaeology of Noble Residences in Transylvania: The Residences of the Transylvanian Saxon Elite (12th Century–First Half of the 13th Century)The author offers a new interpretation on the elite of the German hospites and their residences in southern Transylvania. After a brief survey of the current state of the research concerning the Transylvanian Saxon elite and their residences, on the basis of the existing archaeological discoveries, analyses of medieval names, anthroponomy, and documentary resources, the paper reviews the theory of the chronology of fortified noble residences as formulated by some specialists, introducing a new proposal for the chronology and for the possible evolution of the fortified residences belonging to the Transylvanian Saxon elite during the 12th and 13th centuries. Thus, despite the absence of documentary evidence, it is possible that among the southern Transylvanian Saxon hospites a privileged group was constituted as early as the first half of the 13th century, mentioned in documents as milites/milites Saxones. They are those servientes regis who, in exchange for their military services, gained estates in the noble lands and a series of privileges, usually greater than those of the Saxons from Sibiu county.

Keywords – Transylvania, 12th century, 13th century, noble residence, German hospites, elite


Lóránt Kovács, A Historical Survey of Gorneşti Castle Garden • 21

AbstractA Historical Survey of Gorneşti Castle Garden – The aim of our research is the evaluation of Gorneşti Castle Park, assessing its actual state as well as drafting its revitalization plan. The park’s dynamical changes were studied using military maps, which turned out to be more precise than any others. Topographical measurements were carried out during the survey, accompanied by a conclusion regarding the present state of the park. We also took measurements of every reference point of the studied area on the investigated site. Our geodesic assessments, together with the park’s present state, contain the most important dates of restoration and revitalization.

Keywords –castle gardens, Gorneşti, the Teleki family, protection of monuments, landscape design science


Elena-Manuela Iştoc, Evaluating Bucharest’s Downtown Cultural Assets and the Satisfaction and Benefits Gained by Their Consumers • 28

Abstract– Evaluating Bucharest’s Downtown Cultural Assets and the Satisfaction and Benefits Gained by Their ConsumersThis paper proposes a qualitative analysis of cultural assets of downtown Bucharest. For this purpose the framework and methodology for research support was the aseb (Activities, Settings, Experiences and Benefits) grid analysis, as a focused swot (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) derivate. It is based on a field research informed by 182 qualitative in-depth interviews undertaken in Bucharest. The survey explores satisfaction, experiences and benefits gained from visiting the cultural asset in Bucharest downtown. It also points to what cultural consumers actually want or expect from their visit. The study is meant as a starting point for the creation of a place marketing plan.

Keywords – cultural assets, cultural heritage, consumer satisfaction, benefits, aseb grid analysis, marketing mix

Andreea Lazea, The Cultural Heritage, a Common Responsibility • 43

Abstract– The Cultural Heritage, a Common ResponsibilityAn analysis of the national and international regulations and recommendations concerning the cultural heritage can reveal the main principles that underlie public policy in the field, as well as the logic of the main institutional actors. Consequently, the article identifies an important tendency related to the cultural heritage process—the centrality and preeminence of the present society as the “moral” owner of the cultural heritage. Nevertheless, there is evidence that a more abstract and vague actor can be seen as the ultimate owner and beneficiary of the cultural heritage.

Keywords – cultural heritage, ownership, unesco, Romania


Ioan-Aurel Pop, Prólogo al elogio de Mario Vargas Llosa • 55

Abstract– Prologue to the Laudatio of Mario Vargas LlosaThis is the transcript of the welcome speech addressed by the Babeş-Bolyai University Rector Ioan-Aurel Pop to maestro Mario Vargas Llosa on the occasion of his inclusion among the members of the academic body of Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, the oldest and largest university in Romania.

Keywords – Mario Vargas Llosa, Babes-Bolyai University, Latinity


Corin Braga, Alegato por la ficción • 59

AbstractA Plea for FictionNobel Prize in 2010, Mario Vargas Llosa is one of the best known contemporary writers and intellectuals. Babeº-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, awarded him the title of Doctor Honoris Causa on May 20, 2013. The Laudatio, delivered by Prof. Corin Braga, dean of the Faculty of Letters. Starts by presenting Mario Vargas Llosa’s impressive list of publications (novels, short stories, dramas, literary criticism and essays, memoirs, etc.) and prizes he was awarded. It also analyzes the main characterizations given to his work (magical realism, postmodernism, etc.) The originality of Vargas Llosa’s narrative lies in its capacity of transfiguring the reality, in the aim of the artist to create autonomous fictional worlds.

Keywords – Mario Vargas Llosa, Babeº-Bolyai University, Doctor Honoris Causa, fiction


Mario Vargas Llosa, Discurso de recepción • 69

Abstract Acceptance SpeechThis is the acceptance speech that Mario Vargas Llosa delivered upon receiving the title of Doctor Honoris Causa of Babeº-Bolyai University, in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, on May 20, 2013. An internationally acclaimed personality, the Peruvian author has written an impressive series of novels, short stories, dramas, essays of literary criticism, and memoirs. His discourse focuses on the importance of fiction in the evolution of the human race. Imagining fictional worlds is a means for individuals to escape and to complete the dull reality, to live the lives they wanted but they could not live.

Keywords – Mario Vargas Llosa, Doctor Honoris Causa, Babeº-Bolyai University, fiction, literature


Mario Vargas Llosa: Curriculum Vitae • 75


Gaëlle Hallair, Observer, décrire et expliquer le terrain roumain: Le carnet d’Emmanuel de Martonne (1921) • 90

Abstract – Observation, Description and Explanation of the Romanian Research Field: The Notebook of Emmanuel de Martonne (1921)We investigate the production of geographical knowledge thanks to the study of Emmanuel de Martonne’s notebook about an excursion in 1921 through Bukovina and Bessarabia (Romania). Part of the private archive of the French geographer (1873–1955), the notebook served first to collect data on the field. Furthermore, it partly exposed the geographical method in articulating general overviews from a sommital point and the concomitant cognitive writing and drawing processes. The detail case-study of the Chernowitz–Khotyn region comes to conclude this article.

Keywords – history of geography, notebook, research field, visual process, practices

Marta Petreu, Nicolae Manolescu • 107

AbstractNicolae ManolescuThe article synthetically presents the personality of Nicolae Manolescu, the most important postwar Romanian literary critic. His 2008 Critical History of Romanian Literature provides a coherent analysis of the identity of Romanian culture, from the perspective of the only field that, over the years, has maintained a critical awareness of its own evolution: literature.

Keywords – Nicolae Manolescu, literary criticism, literary history, Romanian literature


Iulian Mihai Damian, La fidelitas ripensata in età angioina: Le sue conseguenze politico-religiose sul confine sud-orientale del Regno d’Ungheria (I) • 114

Abstract – The Angevin Reflection on fidelitas and Its Political and Religious Consequences on the South-Eastern Border of the Kingdom of Hungary – The article offers a new perspective on the activity of the Franciscan vicariate of Bosnia in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and on its singular role of religious and political control over the eastern rite population, assumed especially in the southern districts of the realm. It discusses the cultural, religious and political categories that influenced the new Angevin dynasty and its struggle to contain their autonomist tendencies. Especially the Franciscan friars, a highly educated itinerant elite, seems to have influenced the two Angevin kings, who embraced elements of their theosophical and political meditation, especially on matters such as fides and fidelitas, in their attempt to give major cohesion to the social body of the kingdom. The persistence over more than a century of the practice of conditional baptism imposed to the Greek-rite population constituted a fundamental aspect of those policies, with both confessional and socio-political implications.

Keywords – Franciscan vicariate of Bosnia, conditional baptism, medieval political thought

Florian Dumitru Soporan,      Liana Lăpădatu, Nationalisme médiéval et moderne en Europe centrale et de l’Est: Représentations identitaires roumaines et russes • 127

Abstract – Medieval and Modern Nationalism in Central-Eastern Europe: Romanian and Russian Representations of IdentityThe period between the French Revolution and the first pan-European revolution of 1848–1849 foreshadowed the whole series of political, social-economic, and spiritual changes that shaped the profile of modern Europe as a pluralist reality, dominated by nation-states governed on the basis of a legitimacy rooted in a political transfiguration of the nationality principle. The driving force behind the challenges to the institutional infrastructure of the regimes restored in the wake of the Congress of Vienna—also aimed at the whole range of economic policies and at the social exclusivism that prevented the development of exchanges—was the modern nation, the community that came to continue the medieval ethnic solidarity and complete it with new ethnic, political and civic dimensions. If over the long term the society’s readiness to manage public affairs led to the emergence of representative regimes and to economic liberalization, the dissemination of the identity discourse shaped by the national elites of Central Europe triggered disputes that eventually caused the two world wars of the 20th century.

Keywords – nation, elites, identity discourse, Romanians, Russians, Orthodoxy, autocracy


Daniela Dumitru, The Transfer and the Transferability of Critical Thinking Skills • 141

AbstractThe Transfer and the Transferability of Critical Thinking SkillsThe paper contends that if the capacity for critical thinking is transferable, this would enable us to approach all domains and to successfully reason in any of them. However, the issue of transferability remains just as divisive among specialists as the very definition of critical thinking. The author surveys the main current debates surrounding this topic, highlighting the fact that here is a difference of philosophical vision between formalism (universalism) represented by Ennis (as well as by Siegel, Paul and Norris), and anti-formalism, represented by McPeck (who goes along the lines of Toulmin and Wittgenstein). Considering the particular case of philosophers, the author concludes that the presupposition whereby critical thinking is made up of universal principles that may be transferred from one domain to another is false, and that there are only certain principles which we can transfer, which are few in number and which need to be checked through experimental research.

Keywords – critical thinking, skill transfer, transferability, cognitive skills


Book Reviews

Raportul Comisiei Prezidentiale pentru Patrimoniul Construit, Siturile Istorice şi Naturale (reviewed by Tudor Sãlãgean) • 149

Andreas Gottsmann (ed.), Karl I. (IV.): Der erste Weltkrieg und das Ende der Donaumonarchie (reviewed by Loránd L. Mádly)• 151

Valeriu Leu & Nicolae Bocşan (eds.), Marele Rãzboi în memoria bãnãþeanã 1914–1919 (reviewed by Lucian Turcu) • 153

Mihaela Gligor & Miriam Caloianu (eds.), Theodor Lavi în corespondenþã (reviewed by Maria Ghitta) • 157


Contributors        160

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