Iosif Marin Balog, Rudolf Graf, Cristian Luca (eds.), Economic and Social Evolutions at the Crossroads of the World-System. Eastern and Central Europe from the Early Modern Age to the Twentieth Century

Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXII Supplement, No 2, 2013
Economic and Social Evolutions at the Crossroads of the World-System. Eastern and Central Europe from the Early Modern Age to the Twentieth Century
Edited by Iosif Marin Balog • Rudolf Gräf • Cristian Luca

Editors’ Note, p. 5

• Transylvania and the Habsburg Monarchy in the “Long 19th Century” (1800–1914), p. 9

Loránd Mádly •Die Entwicklung des staatsrechtlichen Rahmens des Kronlandes Siebenbürgen während des Neoabsolutismus und in den ersten Jahren des Liberalismus und die nationale Frage • p. 11
Abstract - The development of the Transylvanian Constitutional Law Framework from the Neoabsolutist Decade until the First Years of the Liberalism and the Role of the National Question – This study, elaborated mostly upon the unpublished documents lying in the Austrian and Hungarian archives in Vienna respectively Budapest, tries to clarify some aspects of the constitutional settling in the Great Principality of Transylvania beginning with the end of the year 1848 until the years after the first modern democratic unfolding in this province, the Diet of Transylvania in the year 1863. The fluctuations of the administrative organisation, the intentions of the ruling groups and persons, and as well the center-periphery relation between Transylvania and Vienna are examined upon many documents, as correspondence, reports or official decisions. Although the Austrian autorities tryed to establish a neutral and efficient administration in the first years of Neoabsolutism, the national problem and the related politics achieved an essential role in the province, as it became visible in the eve and during the progress of the Transylvanian Diet. The continuous strengthening of the Hungarian aristocratic party, a comprehensive process in the whole Monarchy, turned the decade of Liberalism, which was a good occasion for reforms, into a mere transition period to the austro-hungarian Dualism.
Keywords – Transylvania, Neoabsolutism, Liberalism, center-periphery, reforms, Dualism

Iosif Marin Balog • Vienna’s Economic Policies in Transylvania (1850–1867), p.44
Abstract – Vienna’s Economic Policies in Transylvania 1850–1867 – This study examines the main aspects of the economic policies of Vienna in Transylvania between 1850 and 1867. Of the many aspects and facets involved in the issue of economic policies in Transylvania between 1850 and 1867, the present study we addressed only a few that we considered important and relevant to clarify this historical aspect. We can conclude that the Austrian state intervened quite heavily in the economic life of the province of Transylvania at the time when Vienna exercised full control over the administration of the province (1850-1867). This interventionist policy had two facets: one expressed through legal and institutional mechanisms, while the other we can call entrepreneurial because the state itself, through its enterprises and estates was a direct actor in economic life. The two facets under analysis present, however, a clear imbalance, both in terms of the approach of policies and actions and as regards their effects. The first facet had major and lasting effects on the economy of Transylvania. The general principles of administrative reconstruction, institutional modernization and creation of a new socio-economic basis materialized into a modern economic legislation, in a fiscal and tax system that favored a dynamic and innovative economic environment, but all these were not doubled by the resources necessary for turning towards a modern economic growth. On the other hand, the latter facet appears as imbalanced compared to the former since despite his role of entrepreneur, the state showed little interest in large scale economic activities in Transylvania, so that we can say that it regarded its eastern province as a peripheral territory from an economic standpoint.
Keywords – Economic history, Transylvania, Neoabsolutism, modernization, economic policies

Horatiu Bodale • The Loyalty towards the House of Habsburg in the Case of the Romanians: From Transylvania and the Italians from the Lombard–Venetian Kingdom (1850–1866), p. 75
Abstract – The Loyalty towards the House of Habsburg in the Case of the Romanians: From Transylvania and the Italians from the Lombard–Venetian Kingdom (1850–1866) – The nationalist ideology was elaborated prior to the 19th Century, there existing numerous theories connected to the idea of nation. During that time, the nation became the subject of some analysis and reflections being used as argument in the service of a specific type of power. In the case of the Romanians from Transylvania in the 19th Century, the idea of nation became stronger due to the Latinist trend and the principle of the building of a nation through education, promoted by the Transylvanian School, also combining the values of the German model of a spiritual nation, the French model of a social nation or the Italian European one. In the context of the need for coagulation of a peripheric nation, inside Austria, the promoters of the idea of nation among the Romanians from Transylvania highlighted the obvious issue of majority. Forming the majority of the population in Transylvania, the Romanian speakers felt entitled to have a good education, cultural manifestations and political rights at least equal to the ones of the other Transylvanian nations. Being another nation from the periphery of the Habsburg Empire, the Italians from the Lombard–Venetian Kingdom were in the situation of self-defining in comparison with the Italians from the other regions of the Italic Peninsula, but also of building a relation with the Austrian Monarchy at the level of collective mentality.
Keywords – Nations, Romanians, Italians, Loyalty, Habsburg Monarchy.

Nicolae Tesculã • Zwischen Tradition und Modernität: Das Bankenvereinswesen der Siebenbürger Sachsen (1850–1867) • p. 88
Abstract – Between Tradition and Modernity: The Bank Associations of Transylvanian Saxons (1850–1867) – This article analyses the birth and evolution of the Transylvanian Saxons’ forms of association in the field of banking, between 1850-1867. If at the beginning of the century the German population enjoyed the status of a privileged nation, within the Transylvanian constitutional system, after the adoption of dualism, they will become a minority within the Hungarian national state. In order to preserve their identity they will resort to associationism which will develop on a scientific, cultural and economic level. By creating Savings Banks in Brasov, Sibiu and the rest of the Saxon towns and cities in Transylvania, banking associationism helped saving the domestic industry and farmsteads from bankruptcy, by giving loans at small interest.
Keywords – Transylvanian Saxons, associations, banks, 19th century, Transylvania, The Hapsburg Empire.

Vlad Popovici • Family Relations and Group Mobilization within the Romanian Political Elite in Transylvania (1861–1900), p. 107
Abstract – Family Relations and Group Mobilization within the Romanian Political Elite in Transylvania (1861–1900) – The current paper constitutes an investigation of the family relations identified within the Romanian political elite from Transylvania, its main goal being to underline the ways in which the political structures and the mobilization processes were being influenced by kinship. In its first part, the main types of relationships are exemplified and their extension and political force within the elite groups are analysed. The relative scarcity of 1st degree relations is underlined, as their functionality seemed to be connected with one of the partners’ positioning on a secondary level, acting as a polarizing point for the supporters of the top level one. The 2nd–3rd degree relations were much wider spread and their functioning system is visible inside given groups, for which they were an important mobilizing factor. Thus, along with certain examples, the second part of the paper comprises the case studies of two elite groups, stressing upon the role of family relations in their creation and subsequent functioning. The final conclusions state that, within the Romanian political elite from Transylvania, family relations sometimes played an important part in the process of group mobilization, but only an extended network-studies approach can lead to the full understanding of the phenomenon.
Keywords – Political elite, Groups, Transylvania, Family, Kinship, Blood, Networks

Oana Habor • From Karlsbad to Bãile Herculane: Between Centre and Periphery. Health and Spa Tourism in the Habsburg Monarchy in the mid-Nineteenth Century • p. 119
Abstract – From Karlsbad to Bãile Herculane: Between Centre and Periphery. Health and Spa Tourism in the Habsburg Monarchy in the mid-Nineteenth Century) – From Karlsbad to Bãile Herculane. A journey within the boundaries of the Habsburg Monarchy, from the centre to the periphery, at the middle of the nineteenth century. The established itinerary includes balneary and climate resorts. The overview of a holiday: improving one’s physical condition thanks to curative springs with a chemically rich composition, scenic natural beauties, a wide array of leisure activities, rest. The route starts from Bohemia and eventually reaches the Banat and Transylvania. We find that the most famous baths in the empire are rivalled, among others, by the landscapes and, especially, by the natural resources of the resorts in the heart of Transylvania. The periphery itself may become a centre. The travellers will convince us of this.
Keywords – centre, periphery, health and spa tourism, balneary and climate resorts

Constantin Bãrbulescu • Les conseillers de la santé: Les médecins roumains et le discours hygiéniste de Transylvanie pendant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle et le début du XXe siècle • p. 130
Abstract – Health Advisors: Romanian Physicians and Hygienist Discourse in Transylvania during the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century and early Twentieth Century – In the present research the author analyzes two broad phenomena. The first has in view the formation in the second half of the 19th century of the professional body of Romanian physicians. At the time, more and more Transylvanian young choose university studies in the medical field. The main university centers where future physicians are formed are Cluj and Budapest. In the first decade of the 20th century the Romanian students in the faculties of medicine of the dualist empire increase spectacularly. The second part of the paper presents topography of the hygienist discourse in Transylvania from the middle of the 19th century till the WWI. In the frame of this discourse, many centers of interest that we conventionally name topics are identified: hygiene of clothing; bodily hygiene; hygiene of alimentation and alcoholism; hygiene of the house.
Keywords – history of the 19th century, medicine history, Transylvania, hygiene history

Mirela Popa-Andrei • Diana Covaci • The Formation of an Ecclesiastical Elite in the Modern Era: A Comparative Approach of Two Cathedral Chapters • p. 140
Abstract – The Formation of An Ecclesiastical Elite in the Modern Era: A Comparative Approach of Two Cathedral Chapters – The study is one of the first results of the direction of analysis assumed within a larger research project dedicated to the staff involved in the ecclesiastical administration of the Romanian Greek Catholic Church. Two parts of this study have been devoted to highlighting the features of the two Chapter institutions of Oradea and Blaj. The two steps of reconstruction have used relatively similar sources, the results being compatible to some extent, enough to allow some attempts to theorise. In the final part of the study we focused our attention on the correlation between education, celibacy and promotion, and on some obvious features of each diocese, such as the propensity for the appointment of a significant number of Oradea canons as Greek Catholic bishops.
Keywords – Cathedral Chapter, Canons, Ecclesiastical Elite, Formation, Promotion.

Ioana Mihaela Bonda • De la périphérie de l’Empire vers la cité éternelle: La formation du clergé gréco-catholique roumain pendant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle • p. 155
Abstract – Moving from the Periphery of the Empire to the Centre:Some Aspects of the Romanian Greek-Catholic Clergy Formation in the Second Half of the 19th Century – By the middle of the nineteenth century, in the context of the recently-founded metropolitan province and of the establishment of two new bishoprics (of Gherla and of Lugoj), the authorities of the Greek-Catholic Church felt the need of a more numerous and better-educated clergy. The measures taken by the Romanian hierarchs in the educational field were also supported by the Holy See, which saw college education as an opportunity to expand the Catholic presence in peripheral territories. Pope Pius IX awarded initially four and afterwards five scholarships to Romanian young men for theological studies in Rome. The Romanian students were thus able to attend the courses of two prestigious colleges, namely the Greek College of Saint Athanasios and the Pontifical Urban College of ‘Propaganda Fide’. The Roman education that the Romanian graduates received at these schools had, as we aim to demonstrate in the present study, indisputable benefits for their future professional career.
Keywords –Greek-Catholic Church, education, clergy, pontifical colleges, ecclesiastical career

Cecilia Cârja • The Romanian Greek-Catholic Church and the Hungarian Catholic Autonomy at the Beginning of Austro-Hungarian Dualism • p. 164
Abstract – The Romanian Greek-Catholic Church and the Hungarian Catholic Autonomy at the Beginning of Austro-Hungarian Dualism – The rules for the organization of the Catholic Autonomy remained a mere project. Its implementation encountered opposition of the Holy See, which associated it with the trend towards the creation of national churches. Equally, the presence of the laity in the ecclesiastical structures was contrary to the canons of the Catholic Church. The Romanian Greek-Catholic Church took a stand against the project for the Hungarian Catholic Autonomy, which was perceived as an attack against its own ecclesiastical autonomy, obtained at the time of the establishment of the metropolitan see and guaranteed by the Holy See and the state legislation. Ultimately, for the Romanians, this project also presented the risk of their exposure to Magyarisation through the Church.
Keywords – Catholic Autonomy, Dualism, Hungary, Transylvania, Romanian Greek-Catholic Church.

Ana Victoria Sima • The Selection and Promotion of the Romanian Ecclesiastical Elite in Transylvania: The Case of the Metropolitan of Blaj during the Final Years of World War I • p.  173
Abstract– The Selection and Promotion of the Romanian Ecclesiastical Elite in Transylvania: The Case of the Metropolitan of Blaj during the Final Years of World War I – This study aims to reconstruct the mechanisms for the selection and promotion of the Romanian Greek-Catholic ecclesiastical elite during the final years of World War I. This was a distinct period for the Romanian Transylvanian nation and for the Greek-Catholic Church, given the political changes brought about by the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the transfer of power from the Hungarian to the Romanian authorities. For the Romanian Greek-Catholic ecclesiastical elite and, especially, for the higher ranks of the clergy, the union of Transylvania with Romania put a definitive end to the incessant and unrelenting pressures that the governments in Budapest had exerted in the appointment of its bishops and metropolitans. This study has focused precisely on these interventions of the governments in Budapest as regards the filling of the Metropolitan See of Blaj, which had remained vacant at the beginning of 1918, with the death of Metropolitan Victor Mihalyi of Apşa. The contribution of this article resides in its attempt to reconstitute the channels of influence and decision-making that the Magyar Government used in promoting bishops who complied with the political interests of the dualist Hungarian state to the Metropolitan See of Blaj and its suffragan dioceses.
Keywords – ecclesiastical elite, Transylvania, Austria-Hungary, the Great War, the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church.

Nicolae Bocsan• Ion Cârja • Ecclesiastical Realities from the Banat Reflected in the Journal of Canon Ioan Boroş from the Diocese of Lugoj • p. 186
Abstract – Ecclesiastical Realities from the Banat: Reflected in the Journal of Canon Ioan Boroş from the Diocese of Lugoj – The memoirs of Ioan Boroş provide one of the richest samples of this genre: the canon from Lugoj left a vast, comprehensive journal and an autobiography that has reached us in several edited versions, rather similar in terms of their content; to these may be added various pieces of correspondence and, last but not least, his will. Ioan Boroş’s memoirs introduce us into a complicated, by no means easily accessible area: the anatomy of power in the ecclesiastical sphere. Although he confessed to his lack of interest in the position of a bishop, we believe that Boroş was not honest about his ambition and the reader should understand the exact opposite of what he stated. The special attention he devoted to the succession of Bishops Victor Mihályi, Demetriu Radu and Vasile Hossu at the helm of the Diocese of Lugoj, and the plans and hopes he made on these occasions, suggest that he wanted such a position and that he hoped this desire would materialize whenever the Banat diocesan see remained vacant. Each and every time, he tried to create a favorable passageway, making use of the personal relationships he had with the county administration in order to obtain a decision in his favour from the government authorities in Budapest. Obtaining the approval of the central political power-holders was clearly decisive for his acceding to office.
Keywords – Ioan Boroş, Diocese of Lugoj, Banat, Romanian Greek-Catholic Church, memorialistic texts

• The Making and the Development of Capitalism in Eastern and Central Europe:
Merchants, Markets and Exchanges of Goods (16th–20th Centuries) • p. 195

Cristian Luca • Foreign Merchants in the Dynamics of Moldavia’s Transit and Export Trade (During the Last Decades of the 16th Century) • p. 197
Abstract – Foreign merchants in the dynamics of Moldavia’s transit and export trade (during the last decades of the sixteenth century) – Transit of Cretan wine to the Polish markets in the years 1550-1594 occurred during a period of economic prosperity for Moldavia and increasing foreign trade, following major investment of human and financial capital brought by foreign merchants, especially of Greek and Venetian origin. The numbers of merchants present in the Moldavian ports of Galaþi and Reni, but also in Iaşi, using modern financial instruments, prove the growing interest in the raw materials and foodstuffs of the Romanian Principalities. Export of these goods to the western markets brought high profits, so that other foreign merchants were rapidly attracted to the northern Danubian markets and took control of the Principalities’ foreign trade. Some settled in Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia, becoming naturalised and integrating themselves into wealthier social categories by matrimonial strategies and the acquisition of real estate and buildings, or by buying administrative, political and military dignities in the state structure, at a local and central level.
Keywords – Foreign merchants, Cretan wine, transit trade, sixteenth century, Moldavia

Cristian Nicolae Apetrei • The Transit of Cretan Wine in 16th Century Moldavia: The European Context and Quantitative Assessments • p. 207
Abstract – The Transit of Cretan Wine in Sixteenth Century Moldavia: The European Context and Quantitative Assessments – Sixteenth century sources record an intense transit trade in Cretan wine on the Moldavian route linking the Ottoman Empire with Poland. The wine was carried by sea from Crete, via Istanbul and the Black Sea, to the mouths of the Danube, then by land to Lwów, Poland’s main inlet for Oriental goods. European historiography has noted the significant quantities traded and the high value of incomes from taxation, but a coherent image of this phenomenon has not yet been offered. This paper aims to estimate the quantities of Cretan wine transiting Moldavia during the sixteenth century, to define the main phases which marked the evolution of the trade, to explain the European economic context which generated this growth, and finally to identify the causes for the end of the trade and its reorientation to the Baltic Sea.
Keywords – Cretan wine, long-distance trade, sixteenth century, Venice, Moldavia, Poland

George Enache • The Lower Danube and the Rio de la Plata Region in the Modern Age: Contrasted Perspectives on their Economic and Political Evolution • p. 218
Abstract – The Lower Danube and the Rio de la Plata Region in the Modern Age: Contrasted Perspectives on their Economic and Political Evolution – Ştefan Zeletin’s study on the beginning of capitalism and the emergence of the Romanian bourgeoisie generated much controversy at the time of publication. Among Zeletin’s concerns was to prove that Romanian economic and political evolution was the result of becoming enmeshed at the beginning of the nineteenth century in global trade, whose symbol and engine was the British Empire. Zeletin’s opinions can be easily understood by comparing the Romanian situation with that of South America in the La Plata River region (Argentine, Uruguay). Both regions had a similar status in the world economy in the early and mid-nineteenth century, neutral economic zones supplying agricultural products to the great powers and benefiting from their rivalries.
Keywords – Lower Danube, La Plata region, Great Britain, economy, trade, neutral economic area, Ştefan Zeletin

Constantin Ardeleanu • The Navigation of the Lower Danube (1829–1853) • p. 230
Abstract – The navigation of the Lower Danube (1829–1853) – The paper presents the development of Danubian navigation during the second quarter of the nineteenth century. The first part, The navigation of commercial ships at the mouths of the Danube, presents the conditions of navigation on the Lower Danube, as sailing ships remained the usual means of transport during this quarter-century, with the ports of Galaþi and Brãila acting as the terminus points of maritime navigation along the so called “maritime Danube,” the 100-mile section accessible to sea-going vessels. This portion of the river presented certain physical features, which together with political impositions, made navigation complicated and costly, with visible results for the end price of Danubian grain on the Western markets. The second part, Quantitative data on Danubian navigation, provides statistical information on the development of Danubian shipping, with reference to flags, tonnage of ships, destinations of cargoes etc.
Keywords – Danube, Navigation, Danube Mouths, Austrian steamers, Galaþi, Brãila, Sulina, 1829–1853

José Díaz-Diego • La reforma agraria rumana de 1864: Frustración campesina y precarización de la servidumbre • p. 242
Abstract – The Romanian agrarian reform of 1864: Peasant frustration and serfdom precariousation – After leading a coup d’État, Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza prompted the first agrarian reform of Romania in 1864. The move was accompanied by a previous monastic land confiscation and a subsequence distribution of land among the peasantry, which meant the fall of the Former Regimen in the Carpathian country. Nevertheless, the reform did not really emancipated the peasantry of its dependency, however the law deepened into its difficulties and consolidated the dominance of the traditional oligarchy in the countryside.
Key words – Agrarian Reform, Romania, Peasantry, Land, Feudalism, XIXth century

Constantin I. Stan • Economic aspects of the Treaty of Buftea-Bucharest (24 April/7 May 1918) • p. 266
Abstract – Economic aspects of the Treaty of Buftea-Bucharest (24 April/7 May 1918) – The peace treaty of Buftea-Bucharest, concluded between Romania and the Central Powers on 24th April/7th May 1918, consisted of 31 articles with burdensome military, economic, social and territorial provisions. This paper analyses the economic implications of the peace with information from contemporary sources, as the most important Romanian goods, grain and oil, were vital for Germany’s war efforts. Thus, Romania had to export grain to Germany at an imposed price, much below the real value, and the harvest could not be sold to other countries. Similarly, the German authorities received the right to lease Romanian fields for 90 years. These harsh conditions were resisted by the Romanians, who attempted to find the best solutions to avoid implementing the treaty.
Keywords – Romania, World War I, Central Powers, Treaty of Buftea-Bucharest, Alexandru Marghiloman, King Ferdinand

Arthur Viorel Tulus • Geopolitics and Trade at the Danube Mouths during the Interwar Period • p. 276
Abstract – Geopolitics and Trade at the Danube Mouths during the Interwar Period: A Study Case on the German–British Rivalry – The Versailles System seemed to offer the best conditions for the development of free trade on the Danube market, by internationalising the navigable waterway of the Danube and its tributaries and assuring freedom and equality of navigation for all flags. This was the case at least until Hitler’s rise to power in Germany, i. e. relatively free trade dictated only by the price of merchandise and the needs of the European and world markets. However, during this time, the Versailles System also contained the seeds of self-destruction which, as far as the area from the mouths of the Danube is concerned, meant the exclusion of Germany from the European Commission of the Danube. Germany’s desire to retaliate, combined with the role attributed to the Danube basin by the German school of geopolitics, pushed the authorities of the Third Reich to consider controlling the Danubian market a strategic foreign policy objective. This paper aims to analyse the antagonistic interests of the greatest interwar powers as they manifested at the Danube mouths. In essence, two powers, Germany and Britain, with dissimilar political regimes, different visions and strategies on trade, confronted one another on the Danube market.
Keywords – Danube, trade, Germany, Great Britain, European Commission of the Danube, geopolitics

Gheorghe Iacob • Luminita Iacob • The Economic Crisis in Romania: A Historical and Psychological Perspective• p. 287
Abstract – The Economic Crisis In Romania: A Historical And Psychological Perspective – This study is a bidisciplinary approach to the economic crises in Romania. It raises the question whether the two crises (1929-1933 and 2008-?) can be compared. It relies upon social psychology for an analysis of the current crisis, following the theory of social representations. The historical component explores three factors: the economic situation of the country, the beginning and duration of the crisis, and observations and conclusions. The psychological analysis attempts a diachronic approach based on two methods (induced association and interview). It identifies and compares the social representation of the economic crisis (SREC) in two historical moments: one year after the crisis started in 2008, and four years later. The common denominator of the historical and psychological approaches lies in identifying what the long and short historical durations alter or leave unchanged.
Keywords – Economic crisis, history, social psychology, social representations, bidisciplinarity

Pompei Cocean • Sorin Filip • Nicoleta David • Territorial Cohesion in Cross-Border Spatial Entities • p. 302
Abstract – Territorial Cohesion in Cross-Border Spatial Entities – The achievement of territorial cohesion in cross-border regions is influenced by a series of factors such as the disruptive role of the border, interrelation dysfunctions, economic and social disparities, non-correlated infrastructures, different development strategies, etc. In this context, the creation of a Carpathian Basin Macroregion is inadequate, starting from the adopted name itself (improper from a geological, geographical, ethnic, confessional and cultural point of view) and continuing with the lack of a functional aggregation of such a territorial entity. As a result, Euroregions remain an optimal institutional framework to achieve cohesion in the Romanian-Hungarian cross-border territories.
Keywords – territorial cohesion, cross-border, Carpathian Basin, macroregion, Euroregion

• List of Authors • 319

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