Antonio Faur, Dumitru Teicu (eds.), Central European Historical Realities The Jewish Contribution to Urban Development. Banat As a Border Region (14th–18th Centuries).

Vol. XXII, Supplement No. 4, 2013

Central European Historical Realities
The Jewish Contribution to Urban Development. Banat As a Border Region (14th–18th Centuries)

• The Jews Contribution to the Urban Development of Central Europe
(History, Culture and Art) (International Conference, Oradea, 4-5 November 2011)
Foreword, p. 7

I.1. Arhitecture, Education, Culture

Carol Iancu, Artistes juifs de Roumanie dans le mouvement d’avant-garde et le rôle de Tristan Tzara – le fondateur du dadaïsme, p. 9
Abstract - Romanian Jewish Artists in the Avant-garde Movement and the Role of Tristan Tzara—the Founder of Dada - The paper presents the contribution of some Romanian Jewish painters (particularly Marcel Janco) and writers to the Avant-garde movement that marked the cultural evolution of a number of European cities. In a second part, the essay analyses the originality of the work and its Jewish aspects of one of the most famous Jewish writers born in Romania. Tristan Tzara remains in the history of the European literature, as the poet who promoted the Dadaist movement, who revived the language of the Poetry at the beginning of the 20th century.
Keywords - Romanian Jewish painters, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, Avant-garde, Dada movement

Florin Ardelean, The Jews of Oradea and the Parable of the Crushed Olives, p. 20
Abstract - The Jews of Oradea and the parable of the crushed olives - After the establishment of the Austro-Hungarian dualism (1867), the Jews living in Oradea began to enjoy the rights acquired, the emancipation process starting with a dispute between traditionalist (Orthodox) Jews and the followers of reformism, namely the Neologs. Increasingly involved in public life, inclined but also willing to a rapid assimilation into the Hungarian nation, Jewish local environment has contributed significantly to what we might define as the “golden age” of Oradea, under the relation of modernity and construction of an institutionally and architecturally functional city planning. The Jews were not only present in everything that defined, in 1870-1910, the life of a city developing harmoniously, synchronously with the large Central European metropolises, but they were also the decisive element, the ferment that gave a style, an identity and a vision to modernity in Oradea. Trade, industry, education, health, liberal arts, entertainment accounted for all facets of a spirit that was fed from a dream to build a reality where, after leaving the ghetto, the Jews felt in Oradea as in a substitute Jerusalem. The first decade and half of the 20th century, and to some extent also the interwar period, seemed to forget a terrifying warning of forgotten of Torah, which Kafka often invokes: “We, the Jews, like olives, give the very best in us only when we are crushed.” Emancipated, educated, feeling all better in a world in which, finally, had been admitted, the Jews of Oradea lived their moment of grace and fulfillment. What happened in the summer of 1944 is the hideously end of another flight with wax wings.
Keywords - emancipation of the Jews; assimilation; magyarization, Oradea and the golden age; modernity; Jewish spirit.

Michaël Iancu, Joseph Salvador (1786-1873): Un juif montpelliérain, défenseur du judaïsme, p. 30
Abstract - Joseph Salvador (1786–1873): A Jew from Montpellier, defender of Judaism - The paper presents the main works of Joseph Salvador, a Jew born in Montpellier, in a mixed (Judeo-Christian) family, who became a religious theorist. The essay focuses on the manner in which Salvador defends Judaism, and criticizes some aspects of Christianity.
Keywords - Joseph Salvador, Montpellier, Proto-Zionism, French Jews, Jesus

Daniela Georgeta Marian, Jewish Owners of Secession-Style Buildings in Timişoara, p. 37
Abstract  - Jewish Owners of Seccession-Style Buildings in Timişoara - Like the modernization in Vienna, the unification of the urban body (the intramural and extramural area) also took place in Timişoara following the demolition of the fortifications and the partial application of the principles of the Viennese ring, along with the imperial policy to develop and strengthen them as cities through the colonization of the Hungarians and the Germans. Social classes in the hierarchy of power and financial power holders, the Jews, the Germans and the Hungarians, as representatives of the collective beneficiary (the municipal council) and the individual one, have given a boost to Timisoara’s modernization, following the model of the European capitals, Vienna and Budapest, materialized in imposing and iconic edifices.
Keywords - Urban organism, Viennese ring, collective beneficiary, individual beneficiary, architectural form

Radu Romînaşu, Aspects of the Interwar Activity of the Hebrew Women Association in Oradea, p. 44

Abstract - Aspects of the interwar activity of the Hebrew women association in Oradea - The Hebrew Women Meeting in Oradea was established in the years 1864-1865. As it was specified in the first article of the statutes, its purpose was to help the poor people, especially the older and poor women, the sick, poor widows and orphans. The Meeting also sought to organize an orphanage for the Jewish girls (fact that came true in 1906, also operating in the interwar years), the establishment of as many similar institutions through which to raise the girls and women’s awareness towards Hebrew religion. In 1924, the Hebrew Women Meeting in Oradea submitted to the Bihor County Court an application to acquire legal personality. Over a year, the association received this important status.
Throughout the interwar period, the meeting acted to help the needy Hebrew scholars, war orphans and the poor population of the city in general. It organized parties, musical concerts, school festivals, theater performances, most of them of charitable purpose.
The Hebrew Women Meeting worked during the mentioned period with a well-stated purpose: to help and educate the others. They made everything rigorously, clearly and applied to the general purpose of the Meeting. All these features emerge clearly from the reports, statements, balance sheets and other supporting documents held in archives or in the journalism of that time.
Keywords - Meetings, women, Jews, interwar, charity

Daciana Erzse, The Contribution of some Jewish Painters to the Cultural Life of Oradea (1900–1940), p. 50
Abstract - The Contribution of some Jewish Painters to the Cultural Life of Oradea (1900–1940) - The aim of the present paper is to present the contribution of some Jewish painters born in Oradea to the cultural life of the city from the early twentieth century until the outbreak of the Second World War. The Jewish population participated in every important development in the city’s history - including religious, spiritual, educational, economic urbanization, and cultural domains. In the field of arts, they brought their own traditions, but at the same time an attitude of nonconformism and rebellion. There is an important Jewish legacy to protect and to transmit farther on in the memory of those thousands of Jews from Oradea, exterminated in Auschwitz-Birkenau camps, in May 1944, together with more than 6 million Jewish souls.
Keywords - Jewish painters, Tibor Ernö, Barát Móric, Alex Leon, cultural heritage

Diana Iancu, From the History of Jewish Community of Verona with Focus on its Contribution to the Urban Life, p. 57
Abstract - From the History of Jewish Community of Verona with Focus on its Contribution to the Urban Life - In this paper the author presents a brief history of the Jewish community of Verona. We focus on the most important events, since the settlement of the Jews in the city. Comments relating to the expulsion of Jews (in different periods) are formulated, as well as the set up of the ghetto in Verona, and the contribution of the Jews’ personalities that have marked the history of the city, in various fields (economics, arts and so on). The effect of the anti-Semitic policy promoted by the fascist government of Benito Mussolini is highlighted and the attitude of some Jewish people of Verona, who tried to evade deportation is mentioned also.
Keywords - Jews, ghetto, Verona, fascism, racial laws, deportation

I.2. History and Historiography

Antonio Faur, The Reconsideration of an Important Chapter of Human Solidarity (1944): Some Jewish and Romanian Opinions, p. 66
Abstract - The Contribution of Some Jewish and Romanian Historians and Memorists
(during 1986–1989): Reconsider an Important Chapter of Human Solidarity (1944) - The author examines the books, studies and articles on the historical issue of saving the Jews from Hungary and Northern Transylvania (in 1944) from a certain death by helping them to cross the border illegally to Romania. This is about a significant aspect of the solidarity actions with the tragic fate of the Jews living in the mentioned area that were ghettoised by the Horthy authorities and deported to the death camps of Auschwitz and Birkenau. Both Jewish and Romanian memoirists have issued their commentaries and participated in conferences on this reality. The present paper reproduces edifying texts, in this respect, which were written by Moshe Carmilly-Weinberger, the journalist Constantin Mustaþã, the novelist Francisc Pãcurariu, the historians Randolph Braham, Gh. I. Bodea, I. Micu and Adrian Riza.
Keywords - Romanian and Jewish historians, journalists, Moshe-Carmilly, Adrian Riza, historiography.

Liviu Rotman, The Residence and Social Life of the Jews in the Romanian Principalities, p. 74
Abstract - The Residence and Social Life of the Jews in the Romanian Principalities - This study focuses on the issue of Jewish settlement in the Romanian Principalities and the dynamics of the social structures of the Jews. The study refers to the timeline of the first Jewish settlements in the Romanian Principalities (mid-16th century in Wallachia and mid 17th century in Moldova) and follows up the territorial distribution of the Jews. I analyzed the conditions under which the Power (the local Princes) approved their settlement and the main requirements of the Jews: permission to build houses of worship (beit tfila), to have a cemetery, a ritual bath and other needed communal institutions. A special place is reserved to the formation of Jewish fairs (shtetls) and to the social and economic context of the evolution of these structures.
Keywords - Jewish community, urbanism, shtetl.

Veronica Turcuş, Şerban Turcuş, La diplomazia italiana sulla communità ebraica romena nel Secondo Dopoguerra, p. 86
Abstract - The italian diplomacy about the Romanian Jewish community after World War II - The Italian diplomacy observed in the years after the Second World War very careful the situation of the Jews in Romania and sent accurate informations to the governments of Rome. The Italian diplomacy pursued the situation of the Jews in Romania, as well as the reactions of the Israeli authorities and of the Romanian citizens of Israeli origin towards the persecutions of the communist regime. The Italian diplomatic authorities have analyzed and highlighted the tough and wicked policy of the communist authorities against the Romanian Jews who were banned to emigrate to Israel for a while because, beyond the ideological conflict, the communist authorities seized the massive contribution that the Jews had in the Romanian economy and administration and also the danger of being deprived of these professionals who have contributed to the development of Romania. The Italian diplomats had only words of praise about the professionalism of the members of the Jewish community in Romania and noting the intensity of the phenomenon of immigration to Israel stressed the role of information for the socialist camp held by the Romanian Embassy in Tel Aviv.
Keywords - italian diplomacy, jewish community, Romania, Israel, emigration

Dorottya Halász, Aspects of the Occupational Patterns of Miskolc Jews As Reflected in the Statistical Data for 1920, p. 96
Abstract - Aspects of the Occupational Patterns of Miskolc Jews: As Reflected in the Statistical Data for 1920 - The present study reveals the main aspects of the occupational patterns of the Jewish population of Miskolc—a northeastern city in Hungary—at the height of the community’s socio-economic power. Its main objective is to examine the role Israelites played in the local economy by focusing on the three basic branches of commerce (and credit), industry, and agriculture. It also strives to test the validity of some popular notions such as the Jewish concentration on commerce and industry in an effort to preserve economic independence and the allegedly minimal interest of Jews in agriculture. It concludes that while members of the Israelite community dominated the commercial and credit life of the city, they occupied an inferior position in industry. Their role in agriculture, however, was significant.
Keywords - Jews in Hungary, Miskolc, economy, religious groups, occupational patterns, statistics.

Martin Javor, Jews in the Masonic Lodges of Hungary (with Focus on Košice and Prešov), p. 108
Abstract - Jews in the Masonic Lodges of Hungary (with focus on Košice and Prešov) - The relationship of Freemasonry and Judaism in the Habsburg monarchy was not an easy one and evolved from the mid-18th century onwards. A good example of the functioning of Jews in the Masonic movement is the city of Košice. The list of the members of the Košice Lodge shows strong links with the local Jewish community. Jewish Freemasons were among the most eminent citizens of the city and the Masonic movement in Košice during the Dual Monarchy had a markedly Jewish character. It achieved remarkable results: Košice became the centre of Freemasonry in Hungary. Another city where Jewish Freemasons became the bearers of progress was Prešov. It is difficult to provide a specific number of Jewish Freemasons. According to the Prešov Jewish cemetery records, we may argue that the Jewish community formed an active element in the Masonic lodges of Northern Hungary. The most recent record of the buried members of the Prešov Lodge, dating back to 1909, states that 6 out of 28 members of the Lodge were Jewish. Positively, Jews were the most important members of Masonic lodges in Hungary during dualism.
Keywords - Freemasonry, Jews, Lodges, Dualism, Hungary

• Local Identities in a Frontier Province: The Banat in the 14th–18th Centuries
Foreword: Studies on the Identity of a Border Territory, p. 121

II.1. The Frontier by the Western Lower Danube (the 13th–18th Centuries)

Alexandru Madgearu, Confrontations between Hungary, the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria for the Belgrade–Vidin Border Region in the 9th–14th Centuries, p. 125
Abstract - Confrontations between Hungary, the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria
for the Belgrade-Vidin Border Region in the 9th-14th Centuries - The battle for control over the Danube sector between Belgrade and Vidin and over the Morava and the Timoc valleys was a constant of medieval history, because those were the points of intersection between the spheres of influence exerted by the power centers south and north of the great river. The battle was fought between centers of power that changed over time, but the rapports between them were similar. The beginning was marked by the confrontation between the first Bulgarian Tsarate and the Frankish state. In the 11th–14th centuries, the stages of this confrontation were: 1—between the Tsarate of Samuel, Hungary and the Byzantine Empire; 2—between Hungary and the Byzantine Empire; 3—between Hungary and the Romanian-Bulgarian Tsarate; 4—the extension of Tatar hegemony over the centers of power from Belgrade and Vidin.
Keywords - Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, Hungary, the Danube, frontier, Belgrade, Vidin, Branicevo, the Banat of Severin

Şerban Turcuş, Pontifical Diplomas Correlated with the Diploma of the Joannites: The Inheritance of Queen Violant of Aragon and the Land of Severin, p. 134
Abstract - Pontifical Diplomas Correlated with the Diploma of the Joannites: The Inheritance of Queen Violant of Aragon and the Land of Severin - This study addresses the Diploma of the Knights of St. John from the perspective of certain pontifical documents issued by Innocent IV in favor of Queen Violant of Aragon. In light of the role the Hospitallers played in administering the dowry of Violant, the daughter of Andrew II of Hungary, which was owed to her by the Hungarian King Bela IV, and in expanding the Kingdom of Aragon towards border areas, such as the Land of Severin in the Romanian space, we consider that the Diploma of the Joannites was a formula for covering the Hungarian debt to Aragon. Only from this perspective can the fact that after Queen Violant’s death in 1251 no other document mentioned the Hospitallers in the Land of Severin be explained, a sign that the problem had disappeared with the queen.
Keywords - Hospitaller Order, Hungarian Kingdom, Land of Severin, Holy See, Queen Violant of Aragon

Ligia Boldea, Political Mechanisms at the Southern Frontiers of the Hungarian Kingdom in the Fourteenth Century: The Case of a Family of Officials from Caraş County, p. 145
Abstract - Political mechanisms at the southern frontiers of the Hungarian kingdom in the fourteenth century: The case of a family of officials from Caraş County - The historiographic foray we propose intends to focus on the well-defined prototype of an official (comes and castellan) of the Angevin period, an agent of the royal policy implemented in one of the counties from the southern border of the Hungarian kingdom. We consider that the political-administrative and military career of Master Posa of Szer, as well as of his family, provides a highly suggestive model of the mechanism of power that functioned in the medieval Banat during the fourteenth century. Established in the north of the realm, in Arad County, most likely on the cusp between the thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries, the family rapidly expanded its possessions and influence into the other Banatian counties during the Angevin era. We believe that the basis for this rapid and spectacular rise was the extremely strong personality of Master Posa, son of Iseph, who accumulated, over the course of three decades, a series of dignities that propelled him among the most influential representatives of the royal policies at the southern frontiers of the kingdom. Together with his sons, he represented a genuine political “dynasty” which accumulated dignities and properties both in the Banatian counties and beyond. The documentary information that has been preserved allows us to reconstruct, in broad outlines, the elements that composed the main responsibilities of a comes or castellan during that period.
Keywords - the Angevin period, Caraş County, comes, castellan, knight, Posa of Szer

Nicolae Bocşan, French Opinions on the Specific Characteristics of the Banat Military Border, p. 156
Abstract - French Opinions on the Specific Characteristics of the Banat Military Border - This study presents several French opinions on the specific characteristics of the military border where the Romanian-Illyrian Border Regiment no. 13 was stationed. The organization of the border drew the attention of the French observers who journeyed through the Banat: travelers, diplomats and army members whose interest lay in the military border institution, which they compared with the military colonies of the Cossacks in southern Russia.
The French observers’ opinions are divided between, on the one hand, special praises for the effectiveness of this institution, its very low costs and its ability to maintain a significant troop contingent during times of war or for the defense of the border and, on the other hand, the severe criticism, after the 1848 Revolution, of its anachronistic system, considered to be a perpetuation of the feudal regime.
Keywords - Romanian-Illyrian Border Regiment no. 13, the Banat military border, border guards, French observers, French journalists

Kinga Xénia Havadi-Nagy, The Banatian Military Border: Aspects of the Influence Exerted by Military Status on Space and Society, p. 167
Abstract - The Banatian Military Border: Aspects of the Influence Exerted by Military Status on Space and Society - This paper approaches aspects of the influence exerted by military status on the space and society of the Austrian Military Border in general and on the Banatian strip in particular. The study focuses on the impact of the special status of the Military Border on spatial mobility, the colonization of this area, the structure of adapted settlements, the transport and communication system, and it also presents the changes that occurred in this militarized society. The persistent presence of the military in the territory circumscribed by the Austrian Military Border induced remarkable changes in the administrative, economic, social, and family structures. The relations that the various action groups and power holders developed with the environment here created a peculiar cultural landscape in the process of satisfying vital needs against the background of intense militarization.
Keywords - Austrian Military Border, military status, spatial mobility, colonization, system of settlements, society, communications and transport

II.2. The Historical Geography and the Archaeology of Border Spaces

Zsuzsanna Kopeczny, Nobiliary Residences and Ius Patronatus in the Territory between the Timiş Rivers, p. 180
Abstract - Nobiliary Residences and Ius Patronatus in the Tterritory between the Timiş Rivers
(14th–16th centuries) - Following the example of the kings as great founders of monasteries, the nobles also resorted to this gesture, which was meant to ensure the immortality of the benefactor and his family. In terms of ecclesiastical organization, these foundations were intertwined with the parish church network. When drawing a parallel between the establishment of monasteries and that of churches, we must take into consideration the economic advantages as well, for churches represented a source of income. Familial churches were founded mostly nearby the nobiliary residences, as the examples from Iobag, Remetea and Vareleye illustrate. Beside these court chapels or parish churches, the nobles also made efforts to raise churches in other villages located on their land. The maximum proliferation of private churches occurred during the 14th–15th centuries; there is very scarce information in this respect in the 16th-century charters.
Keywords - Churches, chapels, ius patronatus, nobiliary estates, territory between the Timiş Rivers

Cristina Feneşan, Bartinli Ibrahim Hamdi, a Geographer of the Timişoara Vilayet, p. 191
Abstract - Bartinli Ibrahim Hamdi, a Geographer of the Timişoara Vilayet - During his childhood and youth, the Ottoman geographer Bartinli Ibrahim Hamdi lived for over 20 years in Timişoara, where he was educated and initiated into Ottoman mysticism, in the Khalvetiyye Order (tariqa). In his cosmography, completed in 1750 and conventionally entitled Atlas, Bartinli Ibrahim Hamdi included unique information about various aspects of the physical geography, the economy, and the mystical and cultural life in Timişoara from the late 17th century and the beginning of the next. His cosmography also comprised various data, unencountered in other Ottoman sources, on the natural riches of the soil and subsoil, which had impressed the author ever since his childhood. Under these circumstances, determining the role that Bartinli Ibrahim Hamdi played in the Ottoman culture from Timişoara depends on the assessment of his contribution to the development of descriptive and historical geography in the Ottoman Empire and should not be related to the level of general development in Western Europe. In the current acceptation, the Atlas provides new information about the city and vilayet of Timişoara, as well as about the hydro-technical work carried out by the imperial Habsburg administration after the conquest of the Banat (1716).
Keywords - Bartinli Ibrahim Hamdi, cosmography, historical geography, the city and the vilayet of Timişoara.

Dumitru Teicu, The Fortified Church from Opatiþa: Reflections on the Identity of the 15th-Century Ecclesiastical Architecture of a Frontier Space, p. 203
Abstract - The Fortified Church from Opatiþa. Reflections on the Identity of the 15th-Century Ecclesiastical Architecture of a Frontier Space - The village of Opatiþa is located at the southwestern extremity of Gãtaia Plain. It is located on the border with the settlements of Deta, Sângeorge and Berecuta, situated on the middle course of the Bârzava River. Medieval archeological research conducted at Opatiþa is part of a broader effort to reconstitute, at the level of the entire Banat province, its medieval ecclesiastical geography and to highlight the identity of its medieval architecture. From the perspective of their construction technique and defense conception, the fortified structures from Opatiþa, with moats and earthen ramparts featuring wooden palisades belong to a tradition encountered in large areas inside the Carpathian basin and Lower Danube. In this case medieval archaeology brings into question the relationship between territory and identity, whose reflections may also be detected at the level of ecclesiastical architecture.
Keywords - earthen fortification, necropolis, 14th–15th century churches

Alexandru Szentmiklosi, Observations on the Construction System of the 18th Century Bastion Fortification in Timişoara, p. 211
Abstract - Observations on the Construction System of the 18th Century Bastion Fortification in Timişoara - After the conquest of Timişoara by the Austrians, the new Habsburg administration started building a 138-hectare bastion fortification. he new Pagan-type fortification was built in several stages, between 1732 and 1790. This huge military construction was largely demolished between 1892 and 1910 (or 1914). Preventive archaeological research conducted in 2011 around the objectives City Business Center (Building D) and the 700 Square—“The 700 Square underground parking area”—brought particularly important information concerning the construction of the 18th-century bastion fortification system, in the area of Counterguards I and VII, which protected Bastion VII (“Eugene of Savoy”). Future research, which will be conducted when the construction of Building E in the City Business Center complex is carried out, will contribute substantially to the knowledge of the manner in which the last line of fortifications around the city of Timişoara and the Palanca Mare suburb was built: its traces are preserved, having been sealed by the filling from the bastion fortification walls.
Keywords - Timişoara, the 18th-century, fortification, building techniques, rescue archeology.

Tudor Morar, Luca Bertolini, Radu Radoslav, Evaluating Public Space Pedestrian Accessibility: A GIS Approach, p. 224
Abstract - Evaluating Public Space Pedestrian Accessibility: A Gis Approach - Public spaces are sources of quality of life in neighborhoods. Seeking to help professionals and municipalities assess how well a public space can be used by the community it serves, this paper presents a GIS-based methodology for evaluating its pedestrian accessibility. The Romanian city of Timisoara is used as a case study, by comparing past, present and potential access to public spaces. The main contributions to the field in terms of methodology are establishing a procedure that can be used in cities where data is poor, and offering a more accurate interpretation of urban density, as opposed to traditional census data. The article’s conclusions show that historical and present access to public spaces does not differ that much due to the 20th century densification of the urban structure. Yet, well-placed new public spaces could improve this situation significantly especially in low-density neighborhoods.
Keywords - Public space, Accessibility, GIS, Network Analyst, city evolution

II.3. The Historical Geography and the Archaeology of Border Spaces

István Petrovics, The Bishopric of Csanád/Cenad and the Ecclesiastical Institutions of Medieval Temesvár/Timişoara, p. 240
Abstract - The Bishopric of Csanád/Cenad and the Ecclesiastical Institutions of Medieval Temesvár/Timişoara - In the first part of the paper the author investigates the ecclesiastical organization of the bishopric of Csanád/Cenad, which covered in the Middle Ages, more or less, the territory of the Danube-Tisza/Tisa-Maros/Mureş Region. According to charters issued by the cathedral chapter of Csanád/Cenad and the papal tithe register from the years 1332-37, seven archdeaconries existed in the territory of the diocese in question, among which the archidiaconatus Temesiensis was the largest and most populous. In the second part of the paper, after a brief survey of the history of the town, the author investigates the question of the ecclesiastical institutions (parish churches, mendicant convents, hospitals) of medieval Temesvár/Timişoara.
Keywords - Ecclesiastical organization, medieval, Banat, Timişoara

Zoltán Iusztin, The Noble Judges in Timiş County (14th–15th Centuries), p. 253
Abstract - The Noble Judges in Timiş County (14th–15th centuries) - In the Middle Ages, the noble judges’ institution represented the core mechanism of the nobiliary county. Unlike in Transylvania, where the court assizes were chaired by only two judges, in Timiş four elected nobles were mandated to this effect. The scarcity of the sources leaves the juridical activity of this county in obscurity: here only 50 nobles were mentioned in relation to the operation of the seat of justice, and only one-tenth of these had the title of judex nobilium. The documents show that throughout their lives, magistrates were the retainers or vassals of the high nobility, in whose service they tried to prosper and improve their livelihood. Their activity was generally juridical—they were responsible for carrying out on-site investigations, issuing subpoenas in court cases—but the royal conscriptions show that their duties included the collection of taxes or the census of the county residents.
Keywords - County, noble judges, seat of justice, the county’s men, royal servitors.

Susana Andea, The Palatine Assemblies from Timiş and Caraş Counties and the Documents They Issued in the 14th–16th Centuries, p. 265
Abstract - The Palatine Assemblies from Timiş and Caraş Counties and the Documents They Issued in the 14th –16th Centuries - This study reconstitutes the palatine assemblies held in Timiş and Caraş Counties from the Banat area during the 14th century, as well as those held by the Comites of Timiş in the first half of the 15th century. The scriptural production of these assemblies is analyzed, the emphasis being laid on the documents issued in 1370 and, in particular, on the list of wrongdoers which was unique in the area and quite rare in the Hungarian kingdom. The conclusion of the study indicates that in the second half of the 14th century, as the use of paper was generalized and its costs became lower, the number of written documents considerably increased and their types diversified. This is interpreted as evidence of increased confidence in the value of written documents and, at the same time, it is seen as an argument in favor of an increase in the number of those who could read written documents.
Keywords - Caraş, Timiş, palatine, general assembly, document, county

Avram Andea, Banatian Domanial Records: Conscriptions, Inventories and Accounts (14th–17th Centuries), p. 274
Abstract - Banatian Domanial Records: Conscriptions, Inventories and Accounts
(the 14th–17th Centuries) - The study focuses on the dissemination of writing practices in the domestic and domanial economy of the Banat, analyzing two calculation lists from the year 1372 and, respectively, several income and expense records from the years 1511-1533 in the Hunedoara domain, which also included about 100 settlements in the north-east of the Banat. The analysis captures the impact of writing on the Banatian society and highlights the new intellectual skills (writing and numeracy) required for certain jobs, emphasizing, therefore, the reconsideration of the role of school and literacy in the period. All these changes led to a new mindset and attitude towards school and the written culture, gradually entailing the fact that upward social mobility no longer depended exclusively on the nobility of origin, but also on the level of education. The change was illustrated by the remarkable career of many bearers of the title of magister or literatus, people with scholarly training who were promoted for their intellectual skills in the political and social hierarchy.
Keywords - District, reckonings, income and expenditure ledgers, writing practices, clerks.

Livia Magina, The Memory of Writing in the Banatian Municipal Institutions during the 15th–17th Centuries, p. 284
Abstract - The Memory of Writing in the Banatian Municipal Institutions during the 15th–17th Centuries - A subject with manifold meanings, with numerous trails to be explored, the existence of urban settlements has been examined in European historiography on numerous occasions, emphasizing the status, type and value of towns, as well as the situation of the townspeople. What I aim in this study is to highlight the typology and nature of the documents issued by the authorities of the Banatian urban centers from the 14th until the 17th century, when the Banat became a territory belonging to the Ottoman power. Documentary testimonies of this kind reveal not only the immediate reality they present, but also the cultural impact of writing practices in the urban Banat.
Keywords - Town, municipal institution, the practice of writing, the Banat, the 15th–17th centuries

Adrian Magina, At the Border of Transylvania: the County of Severin/the District of Caransebeş in the 16th–17th Centuries, p. 295
Abstract - At the Border of Transylvania: the County of Severin/ the District of Caransebeş in the 16th–17th Centuries - Organized probably at the end of the 15th century, the County of Severin was coterminous with the old Romanian districts from the highlands of the Banat. From the 16th century on, it merged with the District of Caransebeş at the administrative level, with which it shared a joint body of officials. Integrated in the Principality of Transylvania, following the Ottoman conquest of the Plain Banat, Severin County retained a number of peculiar features in its organization. The most notable was the fact that the Ban of Caransebeş–Lugoj substituted for the position of supreme comes. In the 17th century, the area was aligned with the legislative system of the principality, but it nevertheless preserved the usage of legal practices that stemmed from the medieval tradition of ius valahicum. The functioning of this administrative unit was violently discontinued in 1658, after the imposition of the Ottoman occupation. This analysis aims to capture, through the institutions presented hereinafter, the manner in which this administrative unit from the periphery/ frontier of the Transylvanian principality functioned in the 16th–17th centuries.
Keywords - Severin, the Banat, frontier, county, Caransebeş, Transylvania.

Costin Feneşan, The Franciscans from the Mountainous Banat at the End of the Second and the Beginning of the Third Habsburg Rule (1695–1701, 1716–1738), p. 307
Abstract - The Franciscans from the Mountain Banat at the End of the Second and the Beginning of the Third Habsburg Rule (1695–1701, 1716–1738) - Documentarily attested in Caransebeş, the major center of the Mountain Banat at that time, the Franciscans maintained, from the second half of the 14th century, their monastery there, with all its immovable properties (mills, gardens, plowing fields), despite the religious battles that took place there in the sixteenth and 17th centuries. Even after the Ottoman occupation from 1658, under arguably even more difficult circumstances, the Franciscans continued their activity in Caransebeş and the surrounding area. At the time of the second Habsburg occupation (from 1688 until 1701, with some brief interruptions), the Franciscans strove to regain ownership of their real estates, which they had lost during the Ottoman rule. However, they benefited only from the right to use part of the chattels they claimed. The same steps were taken by monks originating in the Bulgarian province of the Franciscans after the Habsburgs occupied the Banat again (1716), successfully this time. All these endeavors of the Franciscans from Caransebeş are reconstituted on the basis of documents collected from the archives of Vienna, Budapest and Bologna.
Keywords - Franciscans, Caransebeş, Slatina, Timiş, Caraşova, Luigi Ferdinando Marsili, Blasius Kleiner

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