Marius Jucan, Corin Braga, Sorin Mitu (eds.), Western Civilisation Politics, Ideologies, Dystopias

Vol. XXII, Supplement No. 3, 2013
Western Civilisation Politics, Ideologies, Dystopias

• Part I. Europe and the United States: Interferences and Discontinuities: Euro-Atlantic Studies, p. 5
Editor’s Note, p. 7

Gabriel C. Gherasim, Novus Ordo Seclorum: Republicanism and the Republican Party in US Politics, p. 10
Abstract - Novus Ordo Seclorum: Republicanism and the Republican Party in US Politics - The new political order in America at the end of the 18th century was designed and projected as republican in both form and content. But the American republican partisans defined, interpreted and shaped republicanism intricately in the course of American politics and history; accordingly, I will deduce and explain the following six occurrences of the American republican tradition, as follows: 1) Federalist Republicanism, 1789–1829; 2) Nationalist Republicanism, 1833–1860; 3) Abolitionist Republicanism, 1861–1877; 4) Corporate Republicanism, 1880–1920; 5) Conservative Republicanism, 1921–1933, 1981–1989; 6) Militarist Republicanism, 1952–1977, 2000–2008. In addition to these labels and oversimplifications, I will argue that republican ideology, during certain phases of complex evolution, has been marked by some notable shifts and transformations which could be rendered by specific dominant views, sharply dependent on political contexts and historical challenges. My point is that all these dominant republican views can contribute both to the comprehensive understanding of ideological republicanism and to the republican agenda-setting in American politics.
Keywords - federalist republicanism, nationalist republicanism, abolitionist republicanism, corporate republicanism, conservative republicanism, militarist republicanism

Marius Jucan, Is the Western World Vanishing Away?, p. 24
Abstract - Is the Western World Vanishing Away? Public Intellectuals and the Dilemmas of the European and Transatlantic Crises - In questioning the role of European and American intellectuals in the present-day Western world, the author of this article links the decline of intellectuals with European and transatlantic recent crises. While the rift between the two great Western entities, European Union and the United States, continues to grow and the course of European cultural integration is tarrying, one wonders if intellectuals would act as mediators or leave the Western world be ravaged by unprecedented conflicts. It is of cardinal importance to know whether rebuilding the ethos of the intellectual to warrant the survival of the Western world as a cultural and political alliance amidst a conflicting postmodern world is a realistic opportunity or just a sample of wishful thinking. The article pleads in favor of restoring the intellectual ethos, though the solution does not appear easy and painless.
Keywords - intellectuals, intellectual history, civil society, Transatlantic crisis, European integration.

Doina Micu, Euro-Atlantic Perspectives, the Same Pursuit: The Protection of Human Rights, p. 36
Abstract - Euro-Atlantic Perspectives, the Same Pursuit: The Protection of Human Rights - Our material presents the general principles of law applied by the constitutional courts who decide the judicial policy over the fundamental rights of the individuals and the characteristics of the protection of human rights in Europe and the U.S.A. The European Convention on Human Rights (E.C.H.R.) and The Bill of Rights in force, are binding upon the party States at the treaty and upon all the American States and territories under the jurisdiction of the U.S.A. The European Court of Human Rights (E.Ct.H.R.) and the U.S.A. Supreme Court (U.S.S.C.) decide over cases they are competent to refer to, acting as constitutional courts. Constitutionalism as a principle of law is applied in these cases as a doctrine and a guarantee, part of the democracy; it is a paradigm to govern and enforce the checks and balance between the branches of the Government, between the State and the entity the state is a part of, with the aim of being legally and judicially integrated in the process of harmonization.
Keywords -human right, legal harmony, judicial review, constitutionalism, paradigm.

Sergiu Miscoiu, “In the People We Trust!”, p. 47
- “In the People We Trust!” A Discursive Approach of the Beginnings of Populism in the United States of America - While all the democratic systems have historically claimed representing the interests of the People, after being consistently entrenched, the most of them have in various ways partially excluded demos from the main decision-making processes. By the end of the 19th century, for numerous differently politically oriented philosophers, journalists or activists and regular citizens, the promises of the 1789 French Revolution and those of the 1776 Declaration of Independence of the United States of America have proved to be ignored by the leading officials and parties. As a response, a new political phenomenon, later known as populism, struck the pioneering democracy born out of popular revolution. While there is a considerable amount of literature about the beginnings of the American populisms, there are few writings aiming at comparing them by using the qualitative methods of political science. In this article, I shall deal with the case of William Jennings Bryan, in an analysis based on the methodology of discourse theory.
Keywords - Populism, Faith, Power, Agrarian, Claims

Raluca Moldovan, From Caligari to The Big Heat and Beyond: European Influences on Classical American Film Noir, p. 58
- From Caligari to The Big Heat and Beyond: European Influences on Classical American Film Noir - Many film critics tend to believe that film noir, alongside the western, is the quintessential American genre – one that was born in the America of the late 1940s out of specific circumstances reflecting contemporary American realities. In fact, film noir – which I consider to be a film style, rather than a film genre – is the result of various European influences, from the German expressionism of the 1910s and 1920s to the French poetic realism of the 1930s and even to the Italian neorealism of the mid-1940s. Moreover, it was a number of brilliant European émigré directors’ arrival in Hollywood in the inter-war period that defined and transformed American film noir, giving it its distinctive aesthetics. The following paper will try to demonstrate how these cinematic European influences travelled to America, breathing new life into the conservative Hollywood film tradition of the studio period, and resulting in the creation of true masterpieces of film noir, from The Maltese Falcon to Double Indemnity or from The Killers to The Big Heat, defining a cinematic aesthetic that will, in time, profoundly change the face of American cinema.
Keywords - German expressionism, film noir, film style, French poetic realism, film aesthetics

Valentin Naumescu, Towards a Post-“Atlantic Order”?, p. 71
- Towards a Post-“Atlantic Order”? The Disruption of the American-European Partnership and the Rise of Asia-Pacific - Since 2003, the vast majority of the analyses, theories and academic reflections with respect to the decline of the Western order were based on the common idea that we are witnessing a gradual but definitive break of the post-1945 transatlantic relations. We might disagree with the severity of the diagnosis but some analytical and methodological demarches have to be done in order to understand the main directions of a changing world. Having in mind the global transformations following Western political, diplomatic and military crisis of 2003 (over Iraq invasion) as well as the implications of the financial crisis of 2008, scholars admit the end of the unipolar system (meaning two decades of U.S. hegemony after the demise of the Soviet Union) as well as a certain fading of the European-American strategic alliance. This article is an investigation of the transatlantic partnership (past events, current substance and perspectives), in the context of Asia-Pacific ascension. From political to economic dimension and from military to strategic issues, the “post-American world” which Fareed Zakaria has described so accurately is moving to a multipolar architecture, with several centers of growth and influence that are competing for resources and pre-eminence. Accordingly, global economy and international politics face a shift of “gravity center” from Atlantic to Pacific.
Keywords - America, Europe, partnership, crisis, Asia-Pacific

Serban Vãetisi, Anti-urban Ideologies and Practices in the Evolution of the American City, p. 82
- Anti-urban Ideologies and Practices in the Evolution of the American City - The city, as a dominant form of American life, was subject to an anti-urban bias, especially by intellectuals and writers. This helped to shape the values and attitudes of Americans for generations. Moreover, I argue, this intellectual tradition was reinforced (and partially replaced) by a “practical” form of anti-urbanism, manifested in such evolutions as suburbanization, segregation, touristification or virtualization of cities. These ultimately explain how the difficulty in focusing policy on urban problems is rooted in an anti-urbanist vision, established by convergent traditions, practices, strategies and images. The purpose of the article is to explore the sources, forms and evolutions of anti-urbanism in America as particular intellectual tradition and impact on some specific processes of contemporary American city. The article mixes historical approach with critical analysis, by reviewing and interpreting some positions and practices regarding the city.
Keywords - Urban history, United States, anti-urbanism, intellectual history, urban planning, urban policies, social problems.

• Part II. Dystopian Imaginaries, p. 97
Foreword, p. 99

Radu Toderici, La critique de l’utopie à l’âge des Lumières et le problème de l’anti-utopie, p. 102
Abstract - The Enlightenment’s critique of utopia and the issue of anti-utopia - The first half of the 18th century was equally marked by a number of attempts to classify utopian works into an independent category of its own and by the emergence of a modern, critical view of the classical ideal of the community of virtues, as it was embodied by 16th- and 17th-century utopias. As this paper suggests, towards the middle of the 18th century this ethical critique of utopia was incorporated into a larger set of arguments, both ethical and political, directed against utopian works. This shift is best noticeable in Gaspard de Réal de Curban’s encyclopedic treatise La Science du Gouvernement, mainly a product of the natural law tradition, but it has its parallel theoretical equivalent in the political positions of the French Enlightenment. Charles François Tiphaigne de la Roche’s anti-utopian narrative Histoire des Galligènes and Robert Wallace’s account of the inevitable decay of an utopian government in his Various Prospects are both symptomatic of this critical reappraisal of utopia.
Keywords - anti-utopia; utopian genre; political theory; Enlightenment; natural law.

Corin Braga, La Lune à l’âge classique : Du paradis biblique à l’antiutopie scientifique, p. 118
Abstract -
The Moon in Early Modern Literature: From Biblical Paradise to Scientific Dystopia - The heliocentric revolution has been one of the most important turns of early modern science. With the dismissal of Earth from the central position of the universe, the other planets became possible habitable worlds and the stars other suns. The Moon, for example, became a mirror for earth, a reversed world in which writers such Kepler, Cyrano de Bergerac or Daniel Defoe displayed a satirical image of our European societies.
Keywords - Early modern literature; Voyages to the Moon; Johannes Kepler; Cyrano de Bergerac; Daniel Defoe; Ralph Morris

┼×tefan Borbély, Glass Transparency Metaphors as Modernist Desire and Dissatisfaction, p. 129
- Glass Transparency Metaphors as Modernist Desire and Dissatisfaction - Many modernist utopias refer to glass as to a metaphor for harmony, generous transparency and accomplished socialization. The transparent society has no shadows, and nothing to hide, being nothing more that a program of self-perfection and purification. This paper, which is mainly the sketch of a work in progress, focuses on different occurrences of glass and transparency in several societal approaches of modernity, trying to suggest that by going up in time towards the twentieth century’s individualistic modernism, the cultural understanding of glass also shifts from the positive approach of the benevolent Renaissance and Enlightenment utopias towards a negative perception characterized by fragility, anxiety and radical, individualistic estrangement.
Keywords - Modernity, glass culture and symbolism, transparency, Socialist Utopians, Zamyatin.

Simina Ratiu, Gender, Power and Ideological Discourse: A Case Study, p. 137
Abstract - Gender, Power and Ideological Discourse: A Case Study - The present study aims at exploring a proto-dystopia from the perspective of gender studies, cultural studies and the historical context in which it appeared. The Iron Heel (1908) represents a classic example of ideological writing, an expression of the author’s political and existential believes, as well as a type of work that anticipates and influences real historical events. The present analysis is primarily concerned with formulating a diagnosis of the social codes and prototypical images of the time, identifying at the same time the conscious or unconscious strategies for the manipulation, indoctrination and persuasion of the reader.
Keywords - Jack London, ideology, Marxist utopia, gender differences, manipulation, history.

Iulia Micu, Imaginary Space from “Bildungs” to “Builder”, p. 145
- Imaginary Space from “Bildungs” to “Builder”: Artists’ Utopia at the Beginning of the 20th Century - The Modern artist doesn’t stand for himself. He is a pale reflection of all the others, of the outside world as if he would carry a mirror all the way. At the very beginning of the 20th century, aware of their uncertain aesthetic condition, the artists couldn’t avoid the nature of the dispersion that deeply infused their reality. Soon, the diseased European atmosphere became a symptom for the disembodied space and for the whole world’s disenchantment. Hence, building imaginary spaces out of words prevails in all Modernist programs and ideas and came as a quick response to the extremely perished state of the dissolved Ego but also as an imperative need of regaining a lost unity. Extremely eloquent for staging the psychological evolution of the subject, the space textuality comes to re-establish the relation of the underworld fire and the celestial light. Inner and outer space echoes the individual’s quest of himself just as microcosm and macrocosm mirror each other. For that reason, the tremendous effort of building (a book, an imaginary city, a library as utopian space of vegetal memory) fuses iconic figures with a coherent vision of a spiritual universe.
Keywords - imaginary city, modernist artist, allomatic experience, catabasis, utopian space.

Niculae Gheran, The Crisis Literature of The Last Man – His Individuality, Memory and Space: Mary Shelley’s The Last Man and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, p. 159
Abstract - The Crisis Literature of The Last Man – His Individuality, Memory and Space:
Mary Shelley’s The Last Man and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four - The essay is a comparative analysis of Mary Shelley’s novel The Last Man and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four. The post apocalyptic theme of ‘the last man’ was considered a 19th century literary symptomatic response to a period of historical crisis. The question the essay poses is to what an extent did an author like George Orwell respond similarly to the anxieties of his own age in constructing the space of his dystopia? The essay traces the common ground between the two novels in the intersection between memory and architecture as creating instances of ‘totemic space’ (Robert Bevan) or, as Pierre Nora called them, lieux de mémoire. The historical positioning of the main characters as instances of ‘the last man’ is also discussed along with their relationship with nature as opposed to the ideological constructs towards which both authors reacted in their time.
Keywords - Shelley, Romanticism, Orwell, Memory Studies, Architecture, Nora, Bevan.

Ruxandra Cesereanu, “Securitate” in Romanian Contemporary Narrative:
A Communist Dystopia, p. 170

Abstract - “Securitate” in Romanian Contemporary Narrative: A Communist Dystopia - This essay analyses the image of the department of state security (Securitate) as illustrated in the post-communist Romanian literature, respectively in five novels with impact among readers, one of which stirred polemic reactions. The image of the Securitate was a concern and an obsession, in some cases, of the Romanian writer, who found it impossible to separate from the myth disseminated among the people by the repressive apparatus itself: the secret police as occult, almighty ensemble, manipulating the collective and the individual mentality.
Keywords - Romania, Securitate, communism, novel, post-communism, Ana Blandiana, Stelian Tãnase, Mircea Cãrtãrescu, Mihai Sin, Mirela Roznoveanu.

Andrei Simut, After the End: A Post-human Dys/(u)topia?, p. 179
- After the End: a Post-human Dys/(u)topia? - The possibility for the human race to go extinct and the consequences of a biogenetic revolution are two important ideas that usually appear as inter-related in a sub-genre of the apocalyptic fiction, the bio-apocalypse (from Mary Shelley’s The Last Man and Wells’ Time Machine to Michel Houellebecq), which is also situated at the crossroads between utopia and dystopia. The present paper will focus on the a few essential elements that structure this hybrid genre, using a comparative approach between the beginnings of bio-apocalypse with Mary Shelley and the present developments of which the best examples are The Elementary Particles, The Possibility of an Island and Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake, using the concept of the “utopian gaze.” Houellebecq and Atwood’s novels raise a few unsettling questions about the actual crisis of the human civilization, about the impossibility to surpass it, about the desire to replace and re-shape the actual human genome and conceive a different human species. The final question leads to a paradox: we have always fantasized the disappearance of the humans, but when this utopia is really attainable, it becomes a nightmare. Is it really desirable for the human race to go extinct? The disappearance of humanity leads either to an undesirable and bleak utopia or to a dystopian equilibrium.
Keywords - Mary Shelley; Margaret Atwood; Michel Houellebecq; post-human; bio-apocalyptic dystopia; utopian gaze; the “last man” motif.

Laurentiu Malomfãlean, L’Onirothèque hypermoderne dystopique dans Le Palais des rêves d’Ismail Kadaré, p. 190
- The hypermodern dystopian oneiro-library in The Palace of dreams by Ismail Kadare - My paper analyses the hypermodern kadarean novel from three perspectives. After the first section, in which I am aiming a factological mise-en-scène quite necessary for the following comments to be motivated, the second part comes with a mythanalytical interpretation of the textual topos, by considering the Palace of dreams (or Tabir Sarrail) as a kind of a hell, both figuratively (for secularized) and literally (since the writer reimagines through the book Dante’s Inferno), therefore a dystopian picture of the Empire – Ottoman, even Soviet, it no longer matters – in its entirety. Finally, the study ends in some aspects regarding actual dreams and the mimesis in reverse, which triggers the process of disindividuation experienced by the protagonist.
Keywords - disindividuation, dream, dystopia, hell, hypermodernism, hyperreal, mythanalysis.

Marius Conkan, Fantasy Literature: The Teratological Imaginary between Utopia and Dystopia, p. 207
- Fantasy Literature: The Teratological Imaginary between Utopia and Dystopia - The issue of the monstrous in culture (with its ramifications in literature) can be assessed from a double perspective: teratogenic and teratological. From a teratogenic perspective, I shall try to draw a genealogy of the monstrous which, in the European space, originates in antiquity. Pursuing an archaeological approach, I shall create a clinical chart of the monstrous and, in keeping with recurrent aspects of monstrosity, I shall emphasise the manner in which authors of fantasy literature relate to this cultural genealogy of deformities. From a teratological perspective, I shall try to structure the various forms of monstrous found in fantasy literature according to criteria relating, in general terms, to either the manner in which the human characters perceive the fantastic world, or the manner in which fantastic characters perceive the human, or even the manner in which both the human and the supernatural contribute to the construction of dystopian dimensions.
Keywords - Fantasy literature, Monstrous, Imagination, Dystopia.

Olga Stefan, Beauty as Dystopia: Scott Westerfeld’s Uglies, p. 217
- Beauty as Dystopia: Scott Westerfeld’s Uglies - The paper follows the hallo-effect bias and the challenge of surgical beauty as plot devices in Uglies, the first of Scott Westerfeld’s homonymous young adult dystopian series. We discuss the manner in which beauty becomes a mean of mass control in the context of consumerism and image-based societes.
Keywords - Scott Westerfeld, Halo Effect, Plastic surgery, Cosmetic surgery, Beauty, Dystopia.

Aura Teudan, Space boundaries: Understanding the dystopia of the real, p. 225
- Space boundaries: Understanding the dystopia of the real - The understanding of our world (of its meaning, be it absent, encrypted or implied), the shaping of the real inevitably happen against the cosmic aperture which the human existence faces. This cosmic aperture functions as a constellation of meanings and images, symptoms and anachronisms which are out of grasp, but which the human being will try to control and fully explain. The memory of the humanity bears within its birth and death altogether, two hypostases of its haunting specters. There is the anamnesis of birth and the punctum of death, both instances being out of grasp, elusive and flickering as nothing more but a fleeting flashing instant. Such a title could create the expectation of approaching dystopias as disrupting narratives within the real and within its images. However, our approach pursues a different thread. We will observe in the case of two cinematic masterpieces how the real, the world, life itself is in fact in its nature dystopian.
Keywords - Dystopia; Symptom; Image; Narrative; Montage; Melancholia; 2001: A Space Odyssey.

• Part III. Modern Identities in Transylvania, p. 5
Foreword, p. 235

Sorin Mitu, Local Identities from Transylvania in the Modern Epoch, p. 237
Abstract - Local Identities from Transylvania in the Modern Epoch - The study analyses the manner in which the local, particular, fragmentary identities from Transylvania participated in building the social identity of the province’s inhabitants. An emphasis is placed on the complex relationship amongst the folkloric identities of the peasant communities, Transylvania’s administrative divisions and subdivisions, the Szeklers’ traditional military organisation and, at a later moment, that of the border regiments and, finally, the churchly organisation at the local level. The suggested conclusion is that the local identities that were the most conspicuous appeared where these different frames overlapped, as was the case of the Saxons, the Szeklers and the Romanians from Fãgãraº, Haþeg or Nãsãud.
Keywords - Transylvania, 18th-19th centuries, local identities, peasant solidarities, denominational identity

Mihaela Mehedinti - Identifying the Other: Transylvanian Ethnicities in the First Half
of the 19th Century as Viewed by Foreign Travellers, p. 249

- Identifying the Other. Transylvanian Ethnicities in the First Half of the 19th Century as Viewed by Foreign Travellers - Travellers who passed through Transylvania in the first half of the 19th century discovered a multicultural province, inhabited by several ethnicities. Amongst these, the Hungarians, the Szeklers and the Saxons drew their attention due to their political status and privileges, while the Romanians’ most conspicuous trait was their clear numerical preponderance. Although a series of differences are evident with respect to these perceptions from one observer to another, the foreigners’ accounts of these four Transylvanian nationalities converge in concluding that the Saxons had attained the most elevated level of cultural development, while the Romanians seemed to embody all the negative characteristics imaginable, despite also having a number of good qualities. Hungarians and Szeklers were placed somewhere in between these two extremes, their image combining positive and unflattering attributes.
Keywords - Romanians, Hungarians and Szeklers, (Transylvanian) Saxons, identity and alterity, Transylvania, foreign travellers, 19th century

Luminita Ignat-Coman - Identity Geographies of Transylvanian Romanians in the Dualist Period, p. 260
- Identity Geographies of Transylvanian Romanians in the Dualist Period - In outlining the identity of the province of Transylvania in the second half of the nineteenth century, an important place should be assigned to geographical arguments. The geographical descriptions provided by the authors of the time, together with historical, economic, religious and linguistic arguments, are all major identity markers. Geographically located on the borders of the Habsburg Empire, Transylvania represented in the Dualist period a borderland distinguished by strong identity elements. A series of geographic arguments, its location, the ancient character of its inhabitants, their number and dissemination are significant identity elements that the article analyses, concomitantly underlining their cultural and identity implications.
Keywords - Transylvania, border, symbolic geography, identity, modern era

Sorin Mitu, Elena Bãrbulescu, Romanian Peasant Identities in Transylvania:
Sources, Methods and Problems of Research, p. 269

Abstract - Romanian Peasant Identities in Transylvania: Sources, Methods and Problems of Research - The paper is presenting the bibliography and the sources referring to the problems of Romanian peasant identities in Transylvania in the modern epoch. After reviewing the bibliography, a classification and an analysis of sources id made, divided into sources that “go in” (religious, educational and school literature, calendars, churchly memoranda) and sources that “go out” from the village world (official inquiries, notes on the book and folklore). Further on the author insists upon the folkloric sources being analyzed a series of folk texts relevant for the problems of identity. The conclusions highlight the similitude between identity mechanisms at the level of peasant mentality and the modern ones.
Keywords - Peasant identities, historical sources, folklore, Transylvania, 18th-19th centuries

Nicoleta Hegedus, Transylvanian Hungarians’ Self-Image in the 19th Century:
National Unity and Regional Specificity, p. 279

- Transylvanian Hungarians’ Self-Image in the 19th Century.
National Unity and Regional Specificity - The present study details a number of aspects related to the manner in which 19th-century Transylvanian Hungarians defined their self-image in comparison with the Hungarians from Hungary. Therefore, the article attempts to determine the place held by the affirmation of a regional identity within a national identitary discourse that emphasised the concept of unity. The differences with a regional, Transylvanian, character identifiable in the analysed texts are pointed out, without neglecting the general context, which was dominated by the sentiment of belonging to a common national entity. The study’s conclusions show that the Transylvanian Hungarians developed a specific identitary image even from the Dualist period, an image that prefigured interwar Transylvanism.
Keywords - national identity, regional identity, self-image, Hungarians from Transylvania, 19th century

Sorin Mitu, Anca Gogâltan, Aspects of the Saxon Identity in Transylvania
in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century, p. 291

Abstract - Aspects of the Saxon Identity in Transylvania in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century - The present article focuses on the question of the Germanity of the Saxons in eighteenth and nineteenth century historical writings of Martin Felmer, Michael Lebrecht, Georg Daniel Teutsch and Friedrich Teutsch. Beginning with the Middle Ages, the most important identification element of the Transylvanian Saxons was their Germanity. Besides stating and underlining their German character this problem usually implied invocation of specific features and details concerning this subject such as: the problem of the (German) origins of the Saxons what kind of Germans were the Transylvanian Saxons, which were their specific characteristics in relation to the mother nation; the German purity of the Saxons and their excelency in the general context of the German populations; the connections (political, cultural and identity ones) with the German homeland.
Keywords - Transylvanian Saxons, eighteenth-nineteenth century, historiography, self-image, national identity

Réka-Andrea Király, Mixed Marriages Performed in the District of Ceica
from the County of Bihor (1871–1890), p. 301

Abstract - Mixed Marriages Performed in the District of Ceica from the County of Bihor (1871–1890) - Difficulty implied approach to mixed marriages in the Bihor county lies not only in that it is quite hard to surprise the mentality, attitudes, feelings from the past in the face of life’s major moments such as baptism, marriage and death, but is also hard to determine how religious and state laws regarding intermarriage governed everyday life. For Bihor county, mixed marriages were an obvious reality in the 19th century, born from a colorful ethnic and religious cohabitation. Analyzing the phenomenon of mixed marriages in the Bihor county, using statistical research in the Roman-Catholic parish of Ceica, showed that the young brides and grooms were the main actors of a changing world. Made in light of confession and ethnic affiliation, mixed marriages in the Bihor county revealed several mechanisms that have proved that each of them (ethnicity, religious confession, profession, age, sex, place of residence) influenced her modern becoming.
Keywords - Statistics, ethnicity, confessions, quantitative dimension, religious option

Alexandru Pãcurar, La correspondance inédite entre le savant George Vâlsan
et son disciple Nicolae Dragomir, p. 308

- The unpublished correspondence of Nicolae Dragomir
with his master George Vâlsan - This article, a short excerpt from a book, which is now in process of being published – refers to the correspondence between professor Nicolae Dragomir, who dedicated himself to the study of the profession of sheep breeding of the mãrgineni people (inhabitants from around the city of Sibiu), with his mentor, scientist George Vâlsan, ”the spiritual patron” of the Cluj School of Geography. For the very first time in the Romanian geographic literature, representative fragments of this correspondence are analyzed. The emphasis is placed on the advices given by the master to his scholar, so that he may achieve the monograph of his birthplaces, as well as on the description the master is able to accomplish.
Keywords - correspondence, the figure of the geographer George Vâlsan, national conscience and geography, mãrginean sheep breeder, the monograph of Sãliºte.

• List of Authors 318

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