Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXI (Supplement ), No 2, 2012

 Institutional Structures and Elites in Sălaj Region and in Transylvania in the 14th–18th Centuries


TAMÁS F EJÉR, Editing and Publishing Historical Sources in the Research Institute of the Transylvanian Museum Society, p. 9

 Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present the research programmes of the Research Institute of the Transylvanian Museum Society (Cluj-Napoca), dealing with the edition of the medieval and early modern sources of Transylvania: The Collection of Transylvanian Medieval Charters (Codex Diplomaticus Transsylvaniae), The Protocols of the Alba Iulia and Cluj-Mănăştur Places of Authentication Dating from after Secularization (1556), The Libri regii of the Transylvanian Princes and the Wesselényi Family Archives from before 1690. These programmes follow the fundamental principles on how to edit both the sources from before 1542 and the early modern ones, laid out by Professor Zsigmond Jakó (1916–2008), a prominent member of the national and international scholarly community of medievalists. The essence of the research he initiated is that the sources produced in Latin and other languages, used in the medieval and early modern Transylvania, should be published in the form of Hungarian abstracts (regesta). This abridged form of editing and publishing has proved to be most suitable and practical when dealing with hundreds of thousands of charters, on the other hand this written heritage will be accessible also to the broader circle of general audience or historians not having any knowledge of Latin and palaeography.

Keywords

Transylvanian Museum Society, source editing and publishing, medieval charters, regesta, places of authentication, Libri regii, family archive, Wesselényi family

 
ANDRÁS W. K OVÁCS, The Authorities of Middle Solnoc and Crasna Counties in the Middle Ages, p. 31
 
Abstract

The present study discusses the formation and functioning of medieval Middle Solnoc and Crasna counties (administrative units organized by the central administration) from the 11th century up to 1541. Starting with the last decades of the 13th century, the authorities of each of these two counties consisted of a comes (appointed by the king in Crasna and by the voivode of Transylvania in Middle Solnoc county) and four noble judges (iudices nobilium) elected from among the local nobility. Between 1261 and 1476, voivodes of Transylvania bore the title of ‘comes of Solnoc’ (comes comitatus Zolnuk), however, all three parts of the formerly undivided county, Inner, Middle and Outer Solnoc had their own comites/vice-comites, and from the beginning of the 15th century voivodes did not have authority over Outer Solnoc and Middle Solnoc counties any more. In Middle Solnoc and Crasna counties, judicial activity, the most important function of the nobiliary county, starting with the 14th century was performed in the name of the voivode at the occasional assemblies of the county (congregatio generalis) or at the more regular county court (sedes iudiciaria, abbreviated as sedria) sessions held by the vice-comes helped by the four iudices nobilium. Sometime in the 1470s, the Drágfi of Beltiug family received the hereditary title of comes perpetuus of Middle Solnoc and Crasna counties, and from that time on the comites of the two counties were members of this same family, while vice-comites were chosen from their familiares.

Keywords

Transylvania, medieval counties, Solnoc, Crasna, comes, iudex nobilium, comes perpetuus, Drágfi of Beltiug.

 GÉZA HEGYI, The Affiliation of Medieval Sălaj (Szilágy) Region in the Mirror of Social Relations, p. 67
 
Abstract

During the last two decades, some new views have emerged concerning the affiliation of medieval Middle Szolnok and Crasna counties (present-day Sălaj region). The study tries to decide whether these two counties can be considered parts of Transylvania or of the inner territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, examining the informal relations of the local society with the surrounding territories between 1200 and 1424. The aspects considered are geographical, social historical, and institutional. The author finds that the targeted counties were connected much more to Hungary from this point of view. Only one family of all the medieval owners of local castles (13 in number) had arrived from Transylvania. In 1341, 34 of 87 landowners (including the king as well) had external roots, but only 9 in the eastern province. For the authenticating activity, the Hungarian church institutions (especially, for this period, that of the chapter of Oradea) played an overwhelming role: they issued 75-85% of the local documents.

Keywords

Sălaj, Transylvania, Hungary, social relations, foreign landowners, places of authentication

 ANDRÁS W. KOVÁCS, Remarks on the Careers of the Vice-voivodes of Transylvania in the Late Middle Ages (1458–1526), p. 103
 
Abstract

The voivode of Transylvania, appointed by the king of Hungary, was one of the most important officials of the medieval Hungarian Kingdom. The vice-voivode (vicevayuoda), who was the deputy of the voivode, was appointed by the latter from among his familiares. The career of vice-voivodes before 1457 is well known, but the archontology and prosopography of these officials has not been completed yet for the period 1457–1526. The present study analyses the careers of vice-voivodes, their social status, marriage strategies and the wealth of their families in this latter period. The majority of vice-voivodes was chosen from among the well-to-do county nobility from outside of Transylvania. Between 1463 and 1526, with the exception of two shorter periods, vice-voivodes were also vice-comites of the Székely. Most vice-voivodes held offices as comites and castellans during their careers but normally they could not advance on the social ladder so much as to achieve an important position in the royal court. In most of the cases, vice-voivodes were important landowners in their home county and marriage ties connected them with the well-off nobility of the same county.

Keywords

Transylvania, medieval history, vice-voivode, familiaritas, archontology, prosopography, vicecomes of the Székely, well-to-do county nobility.

EMOKE GÁLFI, Transylvanian Places of Authentication and Ecclesiastical Intellectuals in the Middle Ages, p. 139
 
Abstract

This study’s aim is to discuss the relationship between two essential ecclesiastical institutions’ secular functions and the ecclesiastical intellectuals in the Middle Ages. The paper starts with some considerations on the bibliography related to this topic, focusing on the pitfalls and contradictions therein. After the short presentation of the medieval history of the Convent of Cluj-Mănăştur and of the Transylvanian chapter the author tries to answer a fundamental question about the personnel of these places of authentication: can this social strata be called ecclesiastical intelligentsia during all the Middle Ages, or, towards the end of this period we could rather consider them secular intellectuals? The conclusion is that the proper ecclesiastical intellectuals were in the monastic orders both in Transylvania and Hungary, while those members of the chapters who assumed secular intellectual posts, the secular clergy included, were in fact secular intellectuals in clerical gowns.

Keywords

Transylvania, Middle Ages, places of authentication, intellectuals, clergy

ZSOLT BOGDÁNDI, Remarks on the activity of the Cluj-Mănăştur Place of Authentication in the Age of the Transylvanian Principality, p. 155
 
Abstract

The main aim of this article is to present the characteristics of the charter-issuing activity accomplished by the early-modern Transylvanian loca credibilia by examining the case of the authentication place of the convent of Cluj-Mănăştur, where the majority of the protocols have been preserved. We attempt to answer the following questions: did the reorganized and secularized convent, which had preserved its designation and had been moved together with the archives to Cluj, meet the expectations of the society in terms of preservation of the documents and issuing of charters? How did it work and what was its role in the Transylvanian society?

Keywords

Transylvania, charters, places of authentication, convent, protocols

KLÁRA P. KOVÁCS, Fortress-Building in 16th-Century Transylvania.The Recruitment of Labour Force, p. 163
 
Abstract

The study seeks to highlight the main characteristics of the organization of the military construction sites in 16th-century Transylvania related to the recruitment of labour force (military engineers and architects, skilled craftsmen and day workers). The author provides new data concerning the activity of the Italian architects: Domenico da Bologna, Alessandro da Urbino, Sigismondo and Felice da Pisa and Simone Genga. The second part of the study describes the process of the recruitment of craftsmen and unskilled labourers as well as the working conditions on the princely building sites mostly through the example of the fortress from Oradea. Finally the author tries to identify the factors that caused the fallback of the principality in terms of fortifications in the 16th century. Among these the lack of money, the outdated organization of the construction sites and the permanent lack of man-power in the rarely populated state of Transylvania were probably the most important.

Keywords

Italian architects; Renaissance fortresses; bastion fortification; military architecture; organization of labour force; fortress building sites; Oradea; Gherla.

 LÁSZLÓ PAKÓ, The Inquisitors in the Judicial Practice of Cluj at the End of the 16th Century, p. 181
 
Abstract

The two inquisitors of the town (inquisitores malefactorum) are mentioned for the first time in the judicial protocols of the town in 1584, but the first regulation of their duties dates from March 1587. The establishment of the institution was marked by a series of circumstances: the growing efforts of the town officials to tighten the control over the community of the town, the introduction of the inquisitorial procedure, and the judicial activity of a town-advocate called György Igyártó. The inquisitors were charged to take action against criminals in cases that did not involve private accusation, and gained an important role in the management of the town’s revenues as well. The two inquisitors were annually elected among the centumviri. Their activity focused on the crimes that endangered the security and public order of the town’s society – mainly the security of the human life, the family and public morality – and to a lesser extent on trials concerning the material belongings of the citizens. The data presented shows that the appearance of the institution stimulated greatly the development of the judicial practice of the town. They were charged to take up the efforts of the town’s magistrate to provide an institutional frame for the persecution and punishment of the criminals. The growth in number of both the type of the crimes prosecuted and the number of criminal trials started through private or public initiation at the court of the town proves a more effective impeachment of the criminals; furthermore, it clearly indicates the growing role of the justice in the disciplining process of the society. These changes can be listed among other political, social and religious changes of the second half of the 16th century, that are closely linked to the town’s endeavour to gain full independence in every aspect of the town-life.

Keywords

Early Modern Transylvanian legal system, judicial practice of Cluj, inquisitorial procedure, social disciplining, inquisitor, town-advocate, town magistrate, homicide

ANIKÓ SZÁSZ, The Manorial Court of the Reformed Parish of Cluj (Kolozsvár) (1676–1695), p. 199
 
Abstract

The procedures of the Transylvanian manorial courts in the early modern age were not regulated by the contemporary laws, therefore they can be studied only based on the documents of the litigations. The research however is impeded by the fact that the amount of the historical resources concerning this issue is insufficient, and they have not been published yet. The reformed parish of Cluj received certain properties in the neighbouring villages during the 17th century; hence in the decade of the 1690s there were approximately 100 serfs under the authority of the parish. The curators of the parish exercised their jurisdiction over the serfs via the manorial court. Similarly to most manorial courts in Transylvania, this court had also limited jurisdiction, the serfs were judged for all their offences except for those involving capital punishment. The manorial court of the parish was presided by the curator and the trials were performed in the presence of a iudex nobilium representing the county.

Keywords

manorial court, legal procedure, iudex nobilium, reformed parish, Cluj, curator

ANDREA FEHÉR, The Lord my God Has Given My Wife a Child. Childbirth in 18th-Century Transylvania, p. 221
 
Abstract

It is the purpose of this study to show first, how maternity/fertility was socially perceived in 18th-century Transylvanian society, and second, how memoirs describe our ancestors’ child-bearing experiences. Therefore we have outlined some of the practices related to fertility concepts, birth and confinement. In order to complete the picture offered by the memoirs, we have also used legal or medical treatises outlining the historical, social and medical milieu of early modern Transylvania.

Keywords

memoirs, social history, child-bearing, wet-nursing, childbirth, fertility, parenthood

JUDIT PÁL, The Local Exercise of Power in Sătmar county at the Beginning of the 18th Century, p. 237
 
Abstract

The paper analyzes the exercise of power on the local level from the early eighteenth century presenting a “mediator” from Satu Mare (Szatmárnémeti), who acted simultaneously on several levels: he played some sort of mediating role between the town council, the state power, and the Károlyi aristocratic family. Sándor Károlyi, the Lord Lieutenant (fřispán) of Sătmar (Szatmár) county and the wealthiest landlord in the region, developed a considerable network of clients in order to ensure his power base and the management of his estates. Gábor Erřs was a relatively independent and well-off nobleman, as a tricesimator (harmincados) he held a public office, which involved important power positions on the local level, and as such, his relationship with Károlyi was founded on the system of mutual advantages. Both parties depended on each other; the forms of collaboration were quite diversified, but this cannot be stripped down to a simplistic givereceive type of relationship, given that the personal character, religious ties, as well as loyalty played a major role in their relationship, and these are the aspects that made Erřs a genuine client.

Keywords

patron-client relation, local power, Satu Mare, 18th century

 
 

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