Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXI (Supplement ), No 4, 2012

Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXI (Supplement ), No 4, 2012

History, Philosophy and Politics (10th–21th Centuries)
Edited by Daniela Mârza • Liana Lăpădatu

Contents/Sommaire

• Editor’s Note, Daniela Mârza • Liana LÃpÃdatu, p.5

• The Middle Ages: A Different Face, p. 7

Adrian Ioniţă, L’horizon des tombes à dépôt de cheval ou parties de cheval dans la région comprise entre le Bas-Danube, les Carpates Méridionales et Orientales et le Dniestr (Xe-XIIIe siècles), p. 9
Abstract – The Horizon of Graves with Complete or Partial Horse Remains in the Area between the Lower Danube, the Southern and Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester from the 10th–13th Centuries – So far, 569 graves found in 153 localities situated in the area between the Lower Danube, the Southern and Eastern Carpathians, and the Dniester have been ascribed to the Turanic nomads of the 10th–13th centuries. Most of these graves are of the tumulus kind. 110 graves found in 77 localities feature complete or partial horse remains (approx. 19%). Classified according to the offerings, they fall into four categories: I. Graves with complete horse skeletons; II. Graves with a horse’s skull and limb extremities; III. Graves with a horse’s skull; IV. Graves with horse limb extremities. The standard ritual featured a secondary burial in the tumulus: rectangular hole; dorsal decubitus position; arms along the body; legs stretched and set on a W-E axis; offering in the form of a horse’s skull and limb extremities, laid to the left of the deceased. The inventory, based on the pieces found in at least 10% of the graves, probably consisted of: bit, knife, buckle, arrowheads, stirrups, fire striker, flint, bone plaques, earrings.
Keywords – Turanic graves, horse remains, grave inventory, standard ritual

Vlad Sofronie, Die Beziehungen zwischen Byzanz und dem Königreich Jerusalem am Beispiel des kaiserlichen Hofzeremoniells von Konstantinopel im 12. Jahrhundert, p. 43
Abstract – The Relations Between Byzantium And The Kingdom Of Jerusalem In The Close View Of The Court Ceremonial From Constantinople In The 12th Century – In this essay I wanted to present what the relations between Byzantium and the Jerusalem kingdom were, on a close interpretation of the imperial ceremonial from Constantinople. After the first crusade and the reduction of Jerusalem by the Latins, the Byzantine Empire had no other alternative then to try to live and to develop peaceful relations with the Western Christians, who were its neighbors now in the Eastern part. What is important to note is that the collaboration between these two parties in the 12th century was better and more productive as it was the one between the Greeks and the crusaders, who came for the first time in the Far East. This is another aspect that I am following during this study. I show that, after the Latins settled down in the Orient, they began to find out the difficulties the Byzantines had to deal with for so many centuries. We know very good what an agressive antibyzantine propaganda was cultivated by the clergymen in the Occident. When the crusaders came to Constantinople their vision towards the Byzantines was a negative one, mostly influenced by the chroniclers from the Occident. After they began living in Jerusalem or in the other principalities from the Orient, they realized the danger of the Moslem world and began understanding the Byzantine politic and diplomacy. During this essay I also present how the Latins adapt themselves to the new realities they had found in the Orient and how they began to copy the Byzantine diplomacy and their political actions in the 12th century. Another aspect that I deal with here is the Byzantine court ceremonial and how it was interpreted by William of Tyre. The kings of Jerusalem got in contact more then once with the rituals that were displayed at Constantinople. It is interesting to remark that William’s opinion isn’t so radical as the ones expressed by the Latin chroniclers from the Occident. William lived in the Orient and understood better then anyone else the rituals and the role of the court ceremonial from Constantinople. The different view William had in his work shows us that the Latins from the Orient learnt how to live together with the Byzantines and that they were their only possible allies in the new world they had travelled to. The Latin Orient was caught in the fight against the Islam and politically they were forced to collaborate with the Byzantine Empire. In order to survive they tried to integrate themselves in the Byzantine orbis. This thing was understood by the Jerusalem kings. The matrimonial alliances and the vassal oaths towards the basileus were important steps in the bettering of the relations between the two parties. Sadly for the future political development of the two sides, the power of the Byzantine emperors was in decline. Manuel promoted a favourable politic towards the Kingdom of Jerusalem. So the best relations between the Latin Orient and the Greeks were under Manuel Comnenus reign, emperor who was highly appreciated by William of Tyre and the only hope for the Latins from the Orient. This is the explanation why the Byzantine court ceremonial has such a positive description in William’s work.
Keywords – Constantinople, court ceremonial, William of Tyre, Manuel Comnenus, Amalric I. of Jerusalem.

Tudor Sălăgean, Notes on the Documentary Mention of Haţeg in June 19, 1278, p. 53
Abstract – The royal diploma of 19 June 1278, far too little discussed by medievalists after the removal of the incorrect reading Hozolo and its replacement with Hatzok, one of the many important contributions of the late Jakó Zsigmond, offers interesting new clarifications regarding the status of Haţeg in the third quarter of the thirteenth century. Analysed in conjunction with a new interpretation of the archaeological data, the diploma suggests the correct datation and also reveals the connections between the fortified castles of Haţeg and Mehadia, unveiling at the same time new and interesting aspects of the relations between the Hungarian Kingdom and the Romanian political realms beyond the Carpathians.
Keywords – Medieval Transylvania, Haţeg county, medieval Oltenia, voivode Litovoi, fortifications, Gutkeled family

Victor V. Vizauer, The Transylvanian Anthropo-toponymy in the 13th Century: Introductory Views, p. 61
Abstract – In the present material we wanted to express some preliminary views on the study of anthropo-toponyms from the territory of Transylvania in the 13th century. The research is based mostly on office documents of the specified period (edited documents) but also from the early 14th century. The article includes a brief overview of previous researches on the theme of toponymy, a statement of methods and directions that can be followed in the research, a proposal for a typological classification of the anthropo-toponyms and a preliminary analysis of the anthropo-toponymical groups and the issues raised by them.
Keywords – Transylvania; anthropo-toponymy; 13th century; typology; methodology; Middle Ages.

Claudia M. Bonţa, Payne’s Universum in The Graphic Collection of National History Museum of Transylvania Cluj-Napoca, p. 73
Abstract – The fifty prints presented in this paper are part of a work comprising dozens of heterogeneous engravings typical for the public taste of the mid 19th century, Payne’s Universum, or Pictorial World, being a collection of engravings of views in all countries, portraits of great men, and specimens of works of art, of all ages and of every character, by Albert H. Payne, a three volume work published in London from 1844 to 1847. The fascinating concept of the volumes presents an eclectic universe, a testimonial to impressive versatility of the graphic arts in the 19th century. The content of Payne’s Universum is extremely diverse, a selection of works of every branch of the arts in the mid 19th century: portraiture, landscapes and views, genre scenes, exotic vedutas, dramatic scenes and imaginary representations, historical records of past events, specimens from famous artists and well-known masters.
Keywords – collection, engraving, museum, 19th century

Ioan Pop-Curşeu, Représentations sociales, peurs et règlements de conflits : Les Roumains dans les chasses aux sorcières de Transylvanie (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles), p. 85
Abstract – Social Representations, Fears and Conflict Regulations: The Romanians in the Witch Hunts of Transylvania (16th-18th centuries) – This paper aims at showing the complexity of the Romanians’ implications in the witch hunts of Transylvania, during the 16th-18th centuries, particularly as victims, but also as accusers or experts. Their laws against witchcraft were not very severe, but they had to interact, in a multicultural environment, with several others legal systems and religious beliefs, more inclined to condemn magical practices and heresies. This paper discusses briefly the Transylvanian cultural context of the witch craze, presents then some trials in which the Romanians were involved, trying eventually to find some explanations for the mechanisms of xenophobic projections. Feared as strangers, source of fascination and repulsion, the Romanians, principally the women, offered a perfect scheme on which to build social representations meant to comfort the dominant ethnic groups from Transylvania (Germans, Hungarians) in their positions of power and authority.
Keywords – Romanians, Transylvania, witchcraft, witch hunting, social representations

• Ideologies: Between Philosophy and Theology, p. 105

Daniel Fărcaş, Quantum potest et eductio formarum : L’analogie de reception dans le Super Dionysium De divinis nominibus, d’Albert le Grand, p. 107
Abstract – The problem of transcendental analogy is situated, with Albert the Great, on an ambiguous conceptual position. The participation quantum potest is of Neoplatonic origin, while the concept of “eduction” of forms is the Aristotelian aspect of his metaphysics. Within this conceptual frame, Albert builds up his own theory of analogy of reception. This ambiguity is granted by his view of the history of philosophy, as well as by his understanding of the Book of causes, as an Aristotelian inspired writing.
Keywords – analogy of reception (analogia receptionis); eduction (eductio); induction (induction); univocity of analogy (univocation analogiae); Giver of forms; Proclus; Albertus Magnus; Aristotle; Avicenna.

Vlad Mureşan, Berkeley’s Argument for the Existence of God in the Alciphron dialogue, p. 125
Abstract – One of the latest works of George Berkeley, the neglected dialogue Alciphron develops – among other philosophical contributions- an innovating argument for the existence of God, during a debate with a character standing for a “free-thinker” representative of the Enlightenment critique of religion. The argument has three stages: 1. against the claim that we can only accept perceptible proof, he constrains Alciphron to admit that the soul, as an invisible principle governing the motions of the body cannot be perceived but is real nevertheless; 2. in the same way we infer an invisible principle as the mover of the visible body, we must infer an invisible principle as the mover and unifying agent of all the coherent material masses and motions exhibited by nature; 3. finally, against the objection that I can believe in somebody’s invisible soul because it is speaking to me face to face, Euphranor (=Berkeley) develops a most innovative theory of the visual language: the rational Agent governing the word has arranged things in regularities that combine themselves exactly like a language: this visual language speaks to our eyes, instead of speaking to our ears, but it speaks nevertheless.
Keywords: – George Berkeley, the existence of God, atheism, visual language

Liliana Sonea, Culianu and the European Philosophical Inheritance, p. 131
Abstract – Ioan Petru Culianu is mostly known as Mircea Eliade’s disciple. Needless to say, he is an autonomous thinker, but his work was influenced by his readings. This is the reason why we need to identify the influences from various sources, but also the matters for which Culianu chooses a different path. Also the present study presents a few aspects concerning Culianu’s working method identified with morphology. The morphological research is inspired by Goethe’s thinking and developed by Propp and Eliade. In all of these cases the part reveals the whole. Culianu defines morphology as a classification of structures by which the mind works. These structures are identified with the myth. The result is that all diverse contexts are the result of limited combinations.
Keywords – Culianu, myth, archetype, morphology, symbol.

Claudia Renata David, Metaphysics According to Ion Petrovici, p. 145
Abstract – This study aims to highlight Petrovici’s attempts to analyze metaphysics and its value, proving its legitimacy, its necessity, the weakness and lack of rationality of views against metaphysics, but also the relations that metaphysics, seen as a theoretical discipline, has with the exact sciences, and his thrust to delineate the field of metaphysics from that of religion. Petrovici’s researches were aimed at the content analysis of the concept of philosophy and the determinations of philosophy, the value of these determinations and their relationships with other spheres of the spiritual life.
Keywords – metaphysics, legitimacy, positivists, the Absolute, relative, cognition, soul, empirical-rationalist, nothingness, God.

Ana-Maria Dragodan, Is There a Political Pathology? p. 165
Abstract – Political pathology, as a recently born branch of political science, seems to be devoted to those negative aspects that alienate politics from its fundamental meaning, namely that of serving the collective interests, either of whole nations or of restrained human communities or, in other words, to serving the common good, as Aristotle himself defined it. Moreover, the extreme pathological manifestations taking place in the main fields of politics may determine the annihilation of their basic meaning, triggering real catastrophes for human communities. Yet, to the contrary, if considered in its benefic sense, politics does not divide or set apart, but represents that specific level of human conscience that facilitates a common and coherent behavior for the widest of human groups. Politics lies at the basis of human cohesive communities. There is a consensual infrastructure achieved precisely through politics that made possible the survival of human communities and their development through centuries and millennia. Ensuring through politics the elementary cohesion of human groups does not exclude differences, but on the contrary, presupposes them, otherwise the area of politics would become empty and void of meaning. Under communism, the destruction of the elementary solidarity at the basis of society coupled with the presence at the top of a leader with Ego-cratic powers, has emptied quite rapidly the political field, threatening the survival of the community itself. This trait is common to all totalitarian regimes, constituting the climax of political pathology. Even after the dismantling of political systems based on the single party, in certain post-communist societies there existed tendencies of certain parties to assert themselves as “the one and only” party. The perverse effect is so strong that politicians themselves finally speak of politics in the most pejorative meaning and tend to confuse politization with partisanship. Pathology means, as it is well known, the systematic study of diseases, their diagnosis, the prescription of remedies, and, which is more important, their prevention. A systematic study of political pathology, entailing proposals of strategies and of therapeutic and prevention methodologies still fails to exist. The present study wishes to constitute only part of a more comprehensive book comprising the study of the main different forms of political pathology and it is worth emphasizing that the working hypotheses of said book may very well form starting points for a much wider area of interest covering the therapy of contemporary politics.
Keywords – Pathology, politics, prevention, systems, totalitarianism

Camil-Alexandru Pârvu, Defining Populism and the Problem of Indeterminacy: Some Conceptual Considerations, p. 175
Abstract – This article examines several approaches to the task of defining populism. The important conceptual difficulties are produced by the apparent lack of a meaningful common core among the various local instantiations. Strategies to avoid the indeterminacy of a minimal conceptual core tend then to either appeal to the idea of “populism as the pathology of democracy”, or to associate it with the radical rejection of the complexity of political representation. This article examines the conditions in which the very indeterminacy of populism’s conceptual core ensures its quasi-permanent presence.
Keywords – Populism, populism as pathology, democracy, political representation, problem of indeterminacy

• A World in Motion: Political Realities and International Relations, p. 187

Gheorghe Cliveti, Protectorates and International Guarantees in South-Eastern Europe (1774–1878), p. 189
Abstract – Protectorates are forms of domination or control exerted by a great power over smaller state entities, over certain territories, ethnic or religious communities within other neighboring or “overseas” countries. The present paper aims to analyze the protectorate regime in South-Eastern Europe in the 18th -19th century, emphasizing the “game of power” between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
Keywords – Modern history, Romanian Principalities, protectorate, Ottoman Empires, Russia, Danube region

Armand Goşu, La genèse de la frontière sur le Prout : les négociations de Giurgiu et Bucarest (1811-1812), p. 201
Abstract – The Establishment of the Prut Borders (the Negociations of Giurgiu and Bucharest, 1811–1812) – The author analyses the evolution of the peace negotiations between autumn 1811 and spring 1812, based on documents from Russian and Turkish archives. Due to several spectacular tactical operations, the Ottoman army was surrounded by the Russian troops led by Mikhail Koutouzov, and the Grand Vizier was forced to accept peace negotiations, without the Sultan’s approval, which led to the boundary being fixed on the river Siret, which would have involved the annexation of the greater part of the principality of Moldavia by Russia. Despite the fact that the peace negotiations that had begun in Giurgiu had been conditioned upon the border on the Siret, the Sultan requested that the border be established on the river Prut, while also keeping Kilia and Akkerman, i.e. the northern mouth of the Danube, within the confines of the Ottoman Empire. The peace negotiations that subsequently continued in Bucharest, the capital of Wallachia, were halted at the beginning of 1812 and fighting resumed. Under the pressure of the French invasion and due to the diplomatic intervention of Great Britain and Sweden, Tsar Alexander I agreed to annex only half of Moldavia, with the future boundary being fixed on the Prut and on the Kilia arm of the Danube.
Keywords – Napoleon I, Alexandre I, Mikhaïl Illarionovitch Koutouzov, Nikolaï Petrovitch Roumiantsev, Ahmed Pacha, André Italinsky, Dimitrie Moruzzi, Charles Stratford Canning, Vallachia, Moldavia, Russia, Hotin, Bender, Ismail, Kilia, Akkermann, Ottoman Empire, Prut, Siret, Bucharest

Raluca Alexandrescu, La modernité roumaine à l’âge de l’apprentissage politique, p. 221
Abstract – The Romanian modernity in the age of apprenticeship – This paper intends to conduct an investigation on political modernisation in Romania at the beginning of the XXth century, in order to find explanations for the „doctrinaire slippage” of Romanian democracy, regarding the ideas of Democracy, Nation and Revolution. My purpose is to analise the way a historical debate on issues so closed to western values degenerated, and finally allowed the establishment of an authoritarian regime, just before the World War II.
Keywords – Romanian Principalities, doctrines, politics, modernity, democracy, parlamentarism

Gheorghe Iacob, The Modernization of Romania—A Success or a Failure? p. 245
Abstract – On the question of modernization many a historian have written in the past decades, including Gh. Platon, Ion Bulei, Victor Axenciuc, Ioan Scurtu, and others, plus sociologists, psychologists and writers such as Liviu Antonesei. The approaches vary greatly in terms of method and interpretation, from positive attitudes that tacitly assume a success in the process of modernization of Romania – if we think of the period between the rule of Alexandru Ioan Cuza and World War II, to a negative view, as we suggest in the title. In conclusion, we can say that by the debut of the First World War “Romania’s economic and social body, by its partial contents, by the trends and perspectives of its development in the capitalist European context, was generally emerging as a capitalist unit with an irreversible evolution with its entire set of factors and mechanisms of market economy, with its specific structures, with its advantages and disadvantages, with its problems and contradictions” (Axenciuc, 2000, 214). The premises of Romania’s development at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century will manifest themselves anew between the Wars in a fresh social, economic and political context. There is an organic continuity between the two periods. To return to the question in the title – success or failure – we believe that the modernization of Romania is a significant and undeniable reality because the direction of Romania’s social dynamics was clearly ascendant, both in quality, and in quantity. The level of modernization must be analysed with a finely nuanced contextualisation for each and every domain, both internally and externally.
Keywords – modernisation, capitalist European context, contradictions, a succes or a failure

Mircea Baron and Oana Dobre-Baron, Mining Labor Agreements in the Jiu Valley during the Interbellum Period, p. 257
Abstract – During the interbellum period, the Jiu Valley was the most important coal basin in Romania, which in 1939, accounted for 60.74% of the national production and 67.15% of the consumption of the Romanian National Railways. In order to achieve this production, the mining companies were using a qualified work force with a maximum of 18,197 employees in 1924 and minimum of 7,247 employees in 1932. Our study deals with one of the institutional ways of regulating the work relations between the coal companies and their employees in the Jiu Valley, namely the collective work contract. The first collective work contract was signed on July 10, 1920, and in prinicipal was meant to regulate the following: work conditions; the employees’ payment and supplies; the provision of housing, heating and electricity; the protection of children, apprentices, and women; the prevention of accidents and rescuing; measurements for the employees’ health and hygiene; the treatment of convalescents, victims of accidents, and invalids; holidays; etc.. These issues were to be found in all subsequent collective work contracts from the interbellum period. We can appreciate that, during most of the interbellum period, the sustained dialogue and the application of the stipulations of collective work contracts ensured a climate that supported productive activity, as well as the social, economic, and cultural development of the Jiu Valley.
Keywords – Romania, the Jiu Valley, the interbellum period, coal companies, miners, work relations, collective work contract.

Jean Firică, Processes of Globalization and Sport Development, p. 275
Abstract – The processes of globalization and development are part of the global sport today. Current trends are focused on specific cultures. Sport and the media are interdependent and part of the global system. In this article we examined: the production of culture media / sporting goods, sporting goods form and content, media and political and economic aspects of consumption series.
Keywords – culture, history, sport, media, economic

• Cultural and Historical Diversity, p. 289

Annelore Mayer, Das Wort als Transporteur eines autochthonen Bildes – kann „Pfanne“ ins Rumänische eindeutig mit „Tigaie“ übersetzt werden?, p. 291
Abstract – The Words as vehicles: Is this Possible to Translate, in Romanian, the word „Pfanner” as „Tigaie”? – When teaching a foreign languege, teacher and lerning person often make the experience, that they are able to guess what a word means in the one and the other language, but that it is not appropriate and also not advisable to use immediately the term “translation.” As Ludiwg Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language teaches, the word is a kind of sounding expression of an idea. The idea has it’s roots in the conception of a special language. So the word gets it’s importance fom the importnace of the idea inside a special language. The german word “Pfanne” and the romanian “tigaie” have their own history, which also ist the history of pictures and imaginations. It seems self-evident, that teacher and learning person can “understand” or are able to “translate.” But otherwise that’s not enough. To be “at home” in a foreign language it is necessary, to see the pictures, which are the foundations of the words, to get a feeling for the application of a word. In the case of the example “Pfanne” and “tigaie” it would be helpful to speak about german and rumanian cooking, about tha manner of using those utensils in the different national cultures and about the „pictures” people have in the one and the aother language, when they think or speak “Pfanne” or “tigaie.” At the end that is more than “translation,” it would be that, what romanian languaege sees and feels when using the word “traducere.” That is, what Ludwig Wittgenstein thinks when he says: “Nur im Fluß des Lebens haben die Worte ihre Bedeutung” (only in the live’s stream words have their importance). So it is necessary, to reach the bank of the language-to-learn.
Keyword – teaching and learning a foreign language, philosophy of Language, Ludwig Wittgenstein, “Übersetzung – Traducere”.

Vilmos Erős, Die ungarische Geschichtsschreibung zur Zeit des Dualismus, p. 301
Abstract – Hungarian historical writing on Dualism: Excerpt of a historiographical work still in progress – The study analyses the hungarian historical writing in the age of „dualism”(1867-1918). In the first part the author introduces the most important institutions, historical journals, source collections, auxiliary and social sciences, debates. In the second part the study treats the main schools/trends of the period, among them the national romantic, the „populist realist”, the social and economic history schools and the so called „Vienna circle”. Besides the currents of the official historiography the study has a glimpse of the „outsiders” of the period, f.e. of the bourgeois radicals and of the beginning of the historical materialism in Hungary. According to the author, the most important feature of the age was the break through of the so called „scientific” historiogpahy in Hungary in the vein of the Rankean professionalism.
Keywords – professionalism, national romantics, populist realists, social and economic history, “Vienna circle,” bourgeois radicals

Ioana Mihaela Bonda, Chanoines roumains dans les grandes universités européennes pendant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, p. 317
Abstract – Romanian Canons within the Amphitheatres of the European Universities in the Second Half of the 19th Century – In the second half of he 19th century, the number of the Romanian students present within the amphitheatres of the well-known European universities had increased considerably in comparison with the previous period. On the same ascending direction falls the number of young theologians, graduates of some prestigious universities, that later became canons that belonged to the Diocesan Chapter of the Greek-Catholic Church in Transylvania. Studying at the famous European universities in Budapest, Rome, Wien, Rome or Trnava, the canons from the Diocese of Alba-Iulia and Făgăraş, Oradea, Gherla and Lugoj, renewed the diocesan administration but also the theological education system. Educated outside the Romanian space to the proposal and within the support of bishops, the young students who had specialized inside the European academic centers, once returned to their dioceses, had a decisively contribution to the development of the ecclesiastical and cultural education which regarded the Transylvanian Romanians. Therefore, through the present research, we aim to outline the main intellectual directions followed by the Romanian Greek-Catholic clergy in Transylvania between 1850- 1900.
Keywords – canons, education, university, Greek-Catholic Church, Diocese, Chapter, Transylvania, student, theology.

Daniela Deteşan, Matrimonial Behaviours of the Transylvanian Romanian Rural Elite (Second Half of the 19th Century), p. 327
Abstract – The article analyzes the matrimonial strategies of the Transylvanian Romanian rural elite in the second half of the 19th century. Based on unique historical sources, the analysis reveals various matrimonial behaviours and suggests explanatory models. The Transylvanian family of the modern epoch was based on logics and basic principles that were different from the current ones and operated on the following variables: indissoluble attachment to their land, excessive fragmentation of the property, the dowry, the transfer of assets from ascendants to descendants, similarity of social statuses, pattern of precocious marriages, a distribution of marriages according to the seasons, with more marriages concluded in winter, a high number of remarriage cases due to the death of one spouse, not to divorce. The variables used refer to a set of matters focused on the socio-economic statute, on age, religion, gender, civil status, occupation, locality of origin and locality of residence of the spouses, on the value and composition of the dowry received upon marriage.
Keywords – matrimonial strategies, marriage contract, dowry, rural elite, Transylvania.

Florinela Popa, Sergei Prokofiev: The Relationship between Music and Communist Ideology: Outline of a Typology, p. 339
Abstract – The Russian and Soviet composer Sergei Prokofiev was one of the greatest musicians of the XXth century. The present paper aims to investigate the ways in which Communist ideology influenced his the musical language, to analyse the complex interactions between Prokofiev’s musical creation and ideology. I will take into consideration especially the context of the Soviet music from 1917 to 1953, Sergei Prokofiev’s position in the Soviet world, and the typology of the music composed by Prokofiev.
Keywords – Sergei Prokofiev, URSS, contemporary period, msic, ideology, social manipulation

Stoica Lascu, The Paradigmatic Polyvalence of Romanian Historiography: Past and Present—Themes, Authors, Orientations, p. 357
Abstract – After the Second World War and during the last half of century, the Romanian historiography has gone through transformations similar to those of the Romanian society as a whole. It is a period during which, it is true, in this historical context, politics have dictated in a considerable manner—but not overwhelmingly and exclusively—, in outlining the directions and the content of the thematic approaches of historiography. Romania’s return, after the events of December 1989, to the democratic multiparty system has also positively influenced historiography. Practically, there is no fracture in its evolution: besides recognized historians, new researchers stand out; new research centers are created; new subjects are approached thanks to the opening of the Archives (especially regarding socialist Romania); a real ‘boom’ of published books happens and Romanian historians participate intensively to international specialty meetings.
Keywords – Bibliography, Historiography, Romanian Academy, Romanian historians, N. Iorga

Corina Iosif, Producing and Consuming “Folklore”: Study of the Origins and Usage of Folklore as a Field of Media Culture in Post-Communist Romania, p. 391
Abstract – After the fall of communism, the forms and genres of its mass culture were decoupled from the ideology of the one-party state and, thanks to the popularity they had gained, they became available for recycling under the new market conditions. Certain types of public performance, initially conceived of as “socialist,” and which drew upon “folklore” and “national traditions,” changed their function: after 1990, they became vehicles of media entertainment. Their structure combines the pre-existing models of folklore entertainment with the new formats of media products. Their popularity with audiences and, in fact, certain segments of society, has not only been reinvigorated, but has also increased thanks to the reproduction of a certain category of audience. The usages of these new entertainment forms can be understood only by setting out from an analysis of their origins, of the mechanisms and processes which, in Romania, characterised the simultaneous development of the political programme of mass culture as well as the field of media culture.
Keywords – folklore, media culture, national culture, traditions, communist mass culture

Ioan Bolovan, Bogdan Crăciun and Daniela Mârza, Mixed Marriages in a Multiethnic and Multiconfessional Environment: A Case Study on the City of Cluj (1900-1939), p. 405
Abstract – From a demographic perspective, Cluj has been characterised by great ethnic and denominational diversity. Besides Romannians, here have lived Hungarians, Germans, Jews, Gypsies, etc. As regards the denominations that are found in this space, these include people of Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Lutheran, Mosaic as well as other confessions. In this context, mixed marriages perform the function of a linking element in society, their existence having the potential to reduce the likelihood of violent conflicts between various ethnic groups and increase the social cohesion of the society.
Keywords – mixed marriage, Cluj, interwar period, confessional diversity, ethnic diversity, Transylvania

• List of Authors , p. 413

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