Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXI (Supplement ), No 3, 2012

Transylvanian Review, Vol. XXI (Supplement ), No 3, 2012

Scholars in Dialogue: Multidisciplinary Approaches in Dealing with the Past in Transylvania
Edited by Corina Moldovan • Ionuţ Costea • Lavinia S. Stan

Contents/Sommaire

• Editor’s Note
Corina Moldovan • Ionuţ Costea • Lavinia S. Stan, p.7

• Géocritique de la Transylvanie : approches multiculturelles, p. 11

Bertrand Westphal – Une géocritique transylvaine, p. 13

Florian Dumitru Soporan – Perspectives ethniques et stratégies sociales en Transylvanie : la seconde moitié du XVe siècle et la première moitié du XVIe siècle, p. 19
Abstract – Perspectives ethniques et stratégies sociales en Transylvanie: Entre la seconde moitié du XVe siècle et la première moitié du XVIe siècle – The historical period beginning with the great successes of the Late Crusade and ending with the consolidation of Principality of Transylvania like a consequence of the Ottoman march to Central Europe and the disappearance of the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary generated big challenges for the political factors and for the communities. The memory of observers and the historical writings propose the image of a time dominated by the military and political disputes, a history of personalities. Other analyses regard the changes who affect the confessional and devotional developments and the genesis of the theological alternatives as a consequence of the Protestant and Catholic Reform. For Transylvania, this end of the Middle Age and the begun of the Modernity signified a moment of important political changes, the former structure of the Kingdom of Hungary became a separate principality under Ottoman authority, like the other two Romanian states, governed by the significant participation of his inhabitants. The importance of the leaders is very important for the understanding of the meanings of events, but a correct research illustrate a relation of determination between the success of a political project and the leader’s capability to mobilize a social support from his ethnic and social community. This relation is a result of the Transylvanian developments, here taking place a proper connection between ethnic solidarity and the privilege status. These reasons justified the study of the behavior of ethnic and social groups, their feelings and disponibilities for confrontations and partnership. The expressions of ethnical solidarities documented for the Europe of the XVth Century is a reality in Transylvania itself and the last argument for this is the pluralism of the images proposed for the political subject consolidated after 1556. The ancient alliance of the noble estate and the nations of German colonists and Sikuli could be the solution for the preservation of the social and political system, but this original construction is not to be considered an example of tolerance. The three nations and the four religious communities who participated at political decisions propose their own outlooks concerning Transylvania and the dynamics of changes who assured the documentations of a Romanian ethnic conscience has here her first meanings.
Key words – ethnical solidarity, the XVth century Transylvania, religious communities

Florent Gabaude – La médiatisation de la Transylvanie dans la publicistique allemande au temps de l’âge d’or de la Principauté, p. 35
Abstract – The Transylvania of the early modern times, at the beginning of the 17th century, even if separated of the rest of Europe, and devastated by several wars, has enjoyed the favors of the German journalism, of Protestant and anti-Protestant origin, as a result of the commercial, cultural and religious exchanges between the two states. This intense media propaganda, in printed broadsheets, is very surprising and interesting as it shows the changes that the Transylvanian “image” took during the most important historical events and under the influence of the historical personalities, such as Sigismond Báthory, Gabriel Bethlen or the prince Ragotzy.
Key words – Transylvania image, history, German broadsheets of the 16th and 17th century

Catherine Roth – Le Club Carpatique Transylvain (SKV) comme support de l’identité saxonne. Analyse de ses annuaires, p. 49
Abstract – Many Transylvanian Saxons believe that one of the most important pillars of their collective identity is the Carpathian Transylvanian Club, the Siebenbürgischer Karpathenverein also known as the SKV. Created in 1880, this Club promotes not only sport activities but also the exploration of the unknown mountain paths and also writing about it in an year book. This publication has an important part in the building of a national identity and can be seen as a cultural construction, as it helps to transform natural spaces into symbolic ones.
Keywords – The Carpathians, Sports Club, national identity, botanic, national novel.

Valentin Trifescu, Une idée sur la Transylvanie : l’historien de l’art Coriolan Petranu, p. 63
Abstract – By analysing some works of Coriolan Petranu (1893-1945), we may learn how the art historian profession began to be practised by the Romanians in Transylvania, as well as which were the priorities and needs that marked this era of new beginnings. At the same time, we have the opportunity to capture the various forms taken by regionalism in the writing of art history. Up to Coriolan Petranu there was no coherent and well-argued Romanian perspective on Transylvanian regional art in specialised historiography. This is due to the simple fact that Coriolan Petranu is the first professional Romanian art historian from Transylvania; before him, Romanians had only produced singular and disconnected arguments, made by enthusiast amateurs, who had not the training and means necessary for scientific inquiry.
Keywords – Coriolan Petranu, Transylvania, Partium, regionalism, campanilismo, wooden churches, history of historiography.

Coralia Telea and Iacob Mârza, L’image de la France dans les écrits d’un professeur de Transylvanie : le cas du professeur Ioan Rusu (1811-1843) des écoles de Blaj, p. 77
Abstract – Manifestations of a transhistorical and geocritical configuration are to be identified in Vormärz and in the work of one of the most typical representatives of the liberal (romantic) generation of intellectuals, i.e. professor Ioan Rusu (1811-1843). The latter taught – at Lyceum Episcopale Balasfalvense – chronology, geography and universal history while also being the author of a very attractive textbook - Icoana pământului sau Carte de Geografie, I-III, Blaj, 1842-1843 (The Icon of the earth or A geography textbook – our translation). The present paper aims at a modern and systematic valorization of the pages dedicated to the French geography and history, which are included in three sections of the book - France A. All over B. Topography C. The French Colonies. The discourse of the Blaj professor contains observations and common sense opinions regarding the natural and cultural heritage of the country: the French borders, the general framework of the country, the natural beauties of France, the cultural horizon of its people, the low level of education in some social media, the moral and physical qualities of its inhabitants, the bravery of the French soldiers etc. From the perspective of a multicultural approach and by means of a geocritical perspective, Ioan Rusu’s interest for the French culture and history finds its place within the ample and tough process of French culture and civilization penetration into the society of the Romanians in Transylvania.
Keywords – geocriticism, history, geography, Vormärz, Paris, monuments, culture, civilization, multicultural perspectives

Mircea Ardeleanu, Jean-Alexandre Vaillant et l’Ardialie : Fragments d’un discours amoureux, p. 91
Abstract – Our study is focused on some fragments of the La Romanie ou Histoire, langue, littérature, orographie, statistique des peuples de la langue d’or, Ardialiens, Vallaques et Moldaves, résumés sous le nom de Romans (Paris, Arthus Bertrand éditeur, 1844, 3 volumes) by Jean-Alexandre Vaillant. This synthetic work was designated to bring to light in France the history, the sources, the context and the development vectors of the Romanian regions that, at the beginning of the XIXth century become aware of themselves. This work brings for the first time in attention Transylvania, integrated in the Romanian history. Our analyses is based on the geocritical perspective on the chapters and fragments of the book that concerns Transylvania. Vaillant indeed accomplishes a real geocriticism of Romania, established on the study of the dialogue and interconnection between human spaces, history, language and literature, trying to make visible and to promote a cultural identity yet unknown for the Occident.
Keywords – Jean-Alexandre Vaillant, Romania,Transylvania, cultural identity, geocriticism

Daniele Tuan, Promenades transylvaines, p. 115
Abstract – One of the most stereotyped myths regarding Transylvania is Dracula, as created by Bram Stocker in 1897. But with the fall of the communist wall, some other writers had the opportunity to fabricate on this land, such as Andrzej Stasiuk, in Sur la route de Babadag, 2004 or Jason Goodwin, On foot to the Golden Horn, 2003. In these novels Transylvania is a land where the real space is often replaced by the fictional one and where history and present are sometimes strangely mixed. Despite the stereotypes, Transylvania still is, especially for Stasiuk, that mysterious land of Dracula but also a fundamental cultural matrix.
Keywords – Transylvania stereotypes, Dracula, Stasiuk, Goodwin

Alexandru Păcurar, Le voyage en Transylvanie d’Elisée Reclus (1873), p. 127
Abstract – Elisée Reclus: Travel impressions in Transylvania – Transylvania – « the country beyond the forest », the center of the oldest inhabitants of the Romanian space – the Dacians, has aroused interest for many travellers because of its special features. The French geographer Elisée Reclus, travelling through this broad intra-Carpathian depression in 1873, discovered its specific elements: the spectacular mountains surrounding it, the variety of the mineral resources (salt, coal, gold, wood), the old age since it was inhabited, starting with the Dacians, the oldest inhabitants of Transylvania to be known and with the Romans to the ethnic variety of the population with its corollary – multiculturalism, result of a tumultuous historical evolution, concentrating on Romanians – as a majority population and on Hungarians – as a domineering population, the abundance of the agricultural products, the poor condition of the roads, the elements of modernity – the railways, the factories for processing gold ore, the urban planning, etc. His ethnicist approach is to be noticed, as well as the militant note of his address for intercultural and not parallel lives in Transylvania, a historical-geographical Romanian province, where tolerance was not a characteristic element for the Hungarian government of that time. In his travel in the Western mining regions of Transylvania, Elisée Reclus anticipated with the visionary spirit that characterises him, considering the accomplished geographer that he was, that which Bertrand Westphal would later call « the geo-critical approach ». The great art of Reclus is that he manages to communicate a unified and positive image of Transylvania, a Transylvania located in different spheres of interest by highlighting issues that unite and not divide, in a period when every actor had its own factual reading. From this point of view he proved to be a visonary who transcended his time. Elisée Reclus’ forays into the geological and historical past of Transylvania, the description of the nature of the sites, of the ethnographic identity elements, lead to an interdisciplinary approach to this geographical and cultural space, achieving a geo-critical view on the Transylvanian space, which is so current!
Keywords – Detunata (Frappe de Tonnerre), ethnicist approach, tamed nature, natural resources, multiculturalism, interdisciplinarity, geo-critical view (approach)

Simona Jişa, Dominique Fernandez : Voyageur en Transylvanie , p. 151
Abstract – Dominique Fernandez visited several times Romania and the results of these travels were fructified in a book entitled Rhapsodie roumaine, published in France in 1998. He dedicates an important chapter to his travel through Transylvania, as he was interested in the art of this region, the fortified churches and the people’s life and sufferings from the past and present as well. He is sensitive to the German and Hungarian influences that, in his opinion, make this place unique. Dominique Fernandez went as well on Emil Cioran traces, trying to explain how his way of thinking was influenced by his native village Răşinari, atemporal and paradisiacal.
Keywords – Transylvania, travel, art, German influences, Hungarian influences, fortified churches, Emil Cioran.

Gérard Grelle – Hans Bergel : un écrivain germanophone décrit sa Transylvanie natale, p. 161
Abstract – One of the saddest realities of contemporary Transylvania is the extinction of the German minority that has arrived at 0,7% of the population. But the writers, artists or other intellectuals who have chosen to live in occidental European countries never forgot their homeland. Such an example is Hans Bergel, a saxon writer, author of the Siebenbürgen, Bilder einer europäischen Landschaft where he offers a poetical and sentimental image of his homeland, Transylvania, an idyllic land where people of different cultures, animals, birds and houses complete a bucolic vision of this mysterious and melancholic space.
Keywords – Hans Bergel, The Carpathian Mountains, bucolic space.

András Kányádi, Le locus identitaire : Avatars du mont Hargita dans la littérature hongroise de Transylvanie, p. 173
Abstract – The locus of identity. Avatars of the Harghita Mountains in Transylvanian Hungarian literature – The Harghita Mountains is not a simple mountain range in the Carpathians. It is also a symbolic place of identity, created by the transylvanism, the interwar literary movement of the Hungarian minority in Romania, and strengthened later by the communist reorganization of the country. Our paper analyses its various aspects in a novel by Áron Tamási, Abel in the deep forest, and a drama by András Sütø, Advent on the Hargita. Although reflecting two different historical periods, the thirties and the eighties, the issues are similar: it is a place of cosmogony, a Paradise, a field of interethnic encounter and the school of life. The basic opposition is rooted in the Hungarian minority’s deteriorated political situation: the novel’s thirst for knowledge makes way, in the drama, for a passive wonder waiting.
Keywords – myth criticism; Transylvania; Hungarian minority; transylvanism; Áron Tamási; András Sütø

Stephan Krause, La poétique de la Transylvanie dans la poésie de Werner Söllner, p. 185
Abstract – The article analyses a choice of examples taken from the poetry of the German poet Werner Söllner, born in Transylvania, Romania, who emigrated to the FRG in 1982. The goal of this study is to point out the poetical importance of Söllner’s notion of the ‘land’, (his) Transylvania, for his poetry and for the way in which these poems depict the transylvanian country and space. Refering to a choice of examples from two of Söllner’s collections of poetry, Kopfland. Passagen and Der Schlaf des Trommlers, especially the contents and the metaphores of his poems are closer examined. It is mainly shown, how the ambivalent relation between the rather dilapidated and less developped country and its – poetically – quite important signification as a somehow nostalgic space full of (also personal) memory gains more and more importance. Thus the study essentially concerns conceptual and notional problems of the chosen texts from Söllner’s lyrical works, such as the importance of nature and for example the significance of paradise and utopia in his poetry. The biographical background of the texts by Söllner – e.g. especially the poets transylvanian descent – is mentioned, but it does explicitly not serve as a basis for the interpretation(s) suggested below. The study borrows its theoretical background from ‘geocritical’ theories (the spatial turn in literary sciences) and argues with an explicit distance towards rather sociological approaches of literature.
Keywords – Werner Söllner, Transylvania poetry, nostalgic space, geocriticism.

Clément Lévy, La Transylvanie : centre du monde d’Alain Fleischer, p. 199
Abstract – This study focuses on Alain Fleisher, a French photographer and writer whose relations with Transylvania are explained by his own family history. In La Traversée de l’Europe par les forêts (2004), Fleisher invents a labyrintical green tunnel trough the Transylvanian forests. In his vision Transylvania is both a center and a frontier, a place where he feels protected. In Les Ambitions désavouées (2003), “Transylvania” is a space of life and death, a hotel in the Amazonian jungle, a symbolic place where the author places his own dreams and haunting memories.
Keywords – Alain Fleisher, Transylvania, novel, symbolic space.

Livia Titieni-Boilă, Réalité et transfiguration de la nature transylvaine dans Rencontres avec les bêtes de Ionel Pop, p. 205
Abstract – Ionel Pop occupies a special place in the Romanian literature that is dedicated to the pleasures of nature. Ionel Pop is a Transylvanian author who finds in this space his roots, his inspiration and his belonging to a special real and collective spirit. The Transylvania he writes about is idyllic but far from the stereotypes and the detailed description of plants, animals, isolated spots in the mountains transform the place, trough the analogies game, into a geopoetical discourse.
Keywords – Ionel Pop, rural Transylvania, geopoetical discourse.

Tatiana-Ana Fluieraru, Appropriation et réappropriation de l’espace chez Ioan Slavici, p. 215
Abstract – Some narrators prefer an empty space as their plot, namely a space liable to be filled, while others prefer to anchor the setting of their story in a real geography. Ioan Slavici makes his characters evolve in a “real” setting, one that is directly inspired by the actual configuration of a locality or of a region. The Romanian author acts both as a geographer and as an anthropologist, marking the landmark details and the space-related superstitions with the same accuracy.
Keywords – Slavici, (re)appropriation of the space, colonization, enclosure, fence, community, home.

Maria Ghitta, La Transylvanie et ses minorités aux yeux d’un historien roumain : Silviu Dragomir, p. 223
Abstract – The study analyzes the manner in which the issue of the national minorities was approached by one of the best known and most prolific Transylvanian historians from the first half of the 20th century, Silviu Dragomir, the founder of the Revue de Transylvanie and of the Center for Transylvanian Studies. Attention is given to the specific developments and nuances manifest in his approach to the issue, from his first book on this topic (1927) to the articles published during the war (1940–1943). His focus is essentially on the situation of the Hungarian minority and on the Romanian-Hungarian dispute over Transylvania. His polemical exchanges, disputes and analyses are defined by the international developments of that time, marked by the moments that significantly influenced the history of Romania: the year 1934 (following Hitler’s rise to power and the strengthening of the revisionist front), the time of rising uncertainty in the eve of the war, and then the years when Romania fought alongside Germany. Apart from these echoes of the major international events, Dragomir’s texts also reveal his personal qualities as an academic and as a historian, with a dominantly positivist background, his stance as a “Romanian patriot” defending the “national truths,” and even his political activity (Dragomir was Minister of the Minorities in several of Carol II’s governments).
Keywords – Transylvania, interwar period, national minorities, Silviu Dragomir, historiography

Corina Moldovan, La Transylvanie dans Le Château des Carpathes, p. 237
Abstract – In the novel Le Château des Carpathes Jules Verne proposes a different view, more romantic and pessimistic of his scientific preoccupations. He describes a rural Transylvania inclined to superstitions and mysteries. Unlike in the more famous Dracula, the Transylvanian vampire is replaced by a sophisticated machine, something between a hologram and television. Moreover this invention brings nothing but destruction and pain. Corina Moldovan, Lector dr. Facultatea de Litere, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca
Keywords – Jules Verne, Le Chateau des Carpathes, fiction, geocriticism, Transylvania

Cécile Kovacshazy, La Transylvanie de Tony Gatlif, p. 249
Abstract – La Transylvanie by Tony Gatlif – In his 2006 movie, Transylvania, the French director Tony Gatlif presents a both geographical and symbolical Transylvania, real and magic. Transylvania is a crossing place for who knows to cross the wood. Gatlif changes the etymology and toponymy and he marks many times in his movie the different stages of the crossing of obscure places, crossing that will permit the two protagonists to advance in their relationship. Their story takes place in a multicultural environment, a special attention being given to the « gipsy » culture that brings more freedom despite the daily discriminations.
Keywords – Transylvanie, Tony Gatlif, TranSylvania, multiculturalisme, Tsiganes, Roms, Sighet Marmaţiei.

• Young Historians—New Approaches: Investigating the Old Past with New Methods, p. 259

Ionuţ Costea, Introduction, p. 261

George Cupcea, Officium consularis: The Evidence of Dacia, p. 267
Abstract – The Roman army has developed a full bureaucratic apparel, in the shape of officia: in auxiliary units, one for every prefect or tribune, in the legion one for each tribune, praefectus castrorum and legate, and one for the governor. The simpler ones have only a cornicularius and a few beneficiarii, but that of the governor contains hundreds of fully prepared men. The higher the rank of the officer, the larger his officium and the higher are the ranks of his officials.
The consular governor of Dacia makes no exception. He can recruit his staff out of the two legions of the province, the best source for qualified and able men. The officium consularis of Dacia is attested by 111 men, from which 86 principales, 11 guards and 14 immunes. The evidence of Dacia is very useful for the inferior hierarchy of the Roman army.
Keywords – Roman army, governor’s office, non-commissioned officers, Dacia, provincial administration.

Rada Varga, “Becoming Roman” on the Northern limes, p. 279
Abstract – This paper is an overview of the peregrines attested in Roman Dacia. Methodologically, the research aims at drawing the lines for the peregrines’ correct identification, as well as for the just evaluation of the statistical results. The epigraphic sources are highly lacunose at some points and can be deceiving, unless treated with proper attention. Otherwise, they offer individual details that lead to a colorful image, important for the understanding of the Dacian social life and realities.
Keywords – Roman Dacia, peregrini, citizenship, epigraphy, quantitative analysis.

Felix Marcu and Călin Şuteu, Magnetism and Time—The Scientific Dating of Archaeological Burnt Features: A Perspective for the Archaeomagnetic Dating Method in Romania, p. 291
Abstract – Archaeomagnetic dating is a chronometric method that relates the shifts and movements of the Earth’s magnetic field in time, represented as a secular variation curve, with the phenomenon of magnetic thermoremanence that allows for the characteristics of direction and intensity of that field to be recorded within the matrix of burnt clay features from archaeological sites. If throughout Europe and the rest of the world the method has seen several decades of data gathering and refinement of the procedure, for Romania there are just a few data points, despite the opportunities of sampling feasible features in numerous excavated archaeological sites each year. Recently, advances have been made due to the set up of a modern laboratory dedicated to archaeomagnetic dating at Alba Iulia and the publishing of a progress report on recent directional studies from the area. The current article aims to give an overview on the current status of research for Romania and the methodology used to recover directional magnetic data from an archaeological feature using the example of the Alba Iulia – Dealul Furcilor Roman kiln complex.
Keywords – archaeomagnetic dating, kiln, Roman, secular variation curve, direction, dating, Romania

Victor V. Vizauer, Transylvanian Anthropotoponymy in the Pontifical Tithes Register for Six Years (1332–1337), p. 303
Abstract – This paper researches the anthropo-toponyms registered in a document of great importance for the Transylvanian anthroponymy and toponymy of the first half of the 14th century. The document is The Register of the Pontifical Tithes for 6 years in Regard to Transylvania (1332–1337), published as Socotelile lui Iacob al lui Berengariu şi Raimund de Bonofato, strângătorii dijmelor pe şase ani din Regatul Ungariei, in the volume Documente privind istoria României, veacul XIV, C. Transilvania, vol. III (1331-1340) (Bucharest, 1954), doc. 56. The analysis focused on the spread of the Christian anthroponyms in settlement names, the anthropo-toponyms containing saint’s names, the large variety of anthroponyms used in establishing settlement names, as well as on new typological categories and possible ways in which an anthropo-toponym could have emerged.
Keywords – toponymy, anthroponymy, Transylvania, 14th Century, statistics

Adriana Cupcea, The Image of the Cluj Society as Reflected in the 19th Century: British Travel Accounts, p. 321
Abstract – The study analyses the perceptions of Cluj’s urban society reflected in the 19th Century British Travel. The research is based on coordinates such as the relation between the social expectations and the encountered realities, by the British travellers. Other coordinates of this study are the ratio between the pre-existing mental structures and the discovered realities, the shaping of stereotypes and the ideological influences in this respect. The structure of this study overlaps on issues approached by the British travel accounts in the second half of the 19th Century. The analysis includes topics like: the local elite, the ethnic and social coordinates, the status of women, the education, local personalities, and the clergymen.
Keywords – Cluj, elite, society, perceptions, images, British travel literature, the 19th Century.

Elena Andreea Trif-Boia, Muslim Women’s Representations in Romanian Transylvanian Culture of the Nineteenth Century, p. 333
Abstract – In the 19th century Transylvanian publications an exotic presence captures the eye of the Romanian reader: the Muslim woman. Her charm, her discreet and mysterious appearance have given rise to many clichés and stereotypes. Most of them, however, place her as a victim in a society dominated by masculine values. The married woman, deprived of freedom and often mistakened for a slave, the woman as mother as the only status that ensures her the respect of her husband and the adulterous woman who pays with her life for the sin she committed, are situations which, together with representations of the oriental harems, depict the general image of Muslim women that remains in the collective mentality of Transylvanian Romanians. The present study is not only a descriptive analysis of this image, but also an attempt to clarify the aspects that have created such an image.
Keywords – Islam, muslim woman, social representations, Romanian culture, Transylvania.

Monica Mureşan, Pavel Vasici-Ungureanu’s Anthropological Works, p. 347
Abstract – Pavel Vasici-Ungureanu, a 19th century Romanian physician known in the age mainly thanks to his contribution to the creation of the ASTRA society’s scientific section. His later preoccupations came closer and closer to the field of medical anthropology, among which we shall mention: Anthropology or Brief Knowledge on Man and His Characteristics (Buda, 1830); Dietetics or the Knowledge of Maintaining One’s Complete Health (Buda, 1831), and The Anthropologic Catechism (Timişoara, 1870). The aim of the present paper is to highlight the original contribution of this Romanian scientist, one of the pioneers of medical anthropological, hygienic, and dietetic research. Unfortunately, his lifework has remained unknown in general partly due to the low number of printed copies, partly on account of the Cyrillic letters in which the first works were published.
Keywords – Pavel Vasici-Ungureanu, Transylvania, 19th century, medical anthropology, hygiene, dietetics

Diana Covaci, For the Rest of Their Life: The Retirement of the Romanian Greek-Catholic Clergy, p. 359
Abstract – The topic of the present study is the pension of the clergy of the Romanian Greek-Catholic Archdiocese in the late 19th century and early 20th century. We focused on the creation of a genuine Pension Fund for the Romanian clergy, and also on the steps taken by the Church governance in order to adapt the purpose of the Fund to the realities of the 20th century. We intended to demonstrate that the establishment of the pension fund is part of the larger process of professionalization of the Romanian Greek-Catholic clergy, also being a feature of the setup of this particular professional category. In order to support our research we used a series of unpublished documents and other ecclesiastical sources, such as the Protocol of the incapacitated priests from the Archdiocese, synod decrees, and the Schematismi of the Archdiocesan clergy covering a period of time between 1865 and 1921.
Keywords – Romanian Greek-Catholic Clergy, Retirement, Pensions, Archdiocese, Profession.

Elena-Crinela Holom, “What Bells Can Tell Us”? The Romanian Bells from Transylvaniaand their Interesting Stories (19th–20th Centuries), p. 371
Abstract – Like people, bells too, have a destiny, an evolution, a history of their own, the main objective of the present research targeting precisely, at the reconstitution of these issues, of the stories of the bells of the Romanian communities in Transylvania of the 19th–20th Centuries. The analysis of archival, memoir sources, of monographs, parish chronicles, of church press and periodicals, of oral sources, brought out a number of similarities between the destiny of people and the destiny of bells.
Keywords – Bells, Church, Romanian Communities, Transylvania, 19th–20th Centuries

Vlad Popovici and Alexandru Onojescu, “Our Beloved Martyrs...”: Preliminaries to a History of Political Detention in Dualist Hungary, p. 383
Abstract – In the 19th century, major political and journalistic Romanian leaders spent many months inside Hungary’s prisons, leaving consistent memoirs and correspondence on this topic. Their writings present the political detention space (the prison and its surroundings) as a particular zone, with special rules, special inhabitants and special types of interactions. Our paper intends to focus mainly on the mutual relations inside this zone, comparing the individual perception of prison space, the ways in which people organized the zone trying to “domesticate” it, relate it to their background, previous lifestyle and expectations. The impact of the prison is also worthy of attention: although each individual responded to detention in a particular way, some major categories of reactions can be identified, from negation and pathological behaviour to full acceptance and integration.
Keywords – political detention, political convicts, Hungary, 19th century, memoirs, press law, prisons

Horaţiu-Marius Trif-Boia, The Spirit’s Historical Consciousness in Hegel: A Few Considerations, p. 395
Abstract – A usual misunderstanding about Hegel’s philosophy is that his system is an aprioric design of thought where there is no place for empirical knowledge and where the premises of the system are already drawn into conclusions before any kind of research is done. There is nothing more false about Hegel than this. However, it has become a widely-held idea that this characteristic would be traceable in all his philosophy. Another common misrepresentation is that Hegel imposes from outside an arbitrary reason for historical development and that he begs the question for finding facts that would suite his allegations. We will proceed to show, by following a few tenets of his Lectures on World History, how the entire central concept is totally different and that philosophical knowledge has an aprioric grasp at another level of his speculative constructions.
Keywords – Hegel, Spirit, History, Identity, Difference, Eschaton, Contemplation, Absolute Knowledge.

Luminiţa Ignat-Coman, The Integration of Regional Leadership after the Great Union: The Case of Iuliu Maniu, p. 405
Abstract – After World War I, Greater Romania was formed as a national state by incorporating the provinces which had previously been under foreign domination. In the period following the Great Union of 1918, a series of strategies for political and administrative homogenization and centralization were promoted. The national elite included important members of the provincial elite with valuable political experience and looking to preserve their positions and rise to national prominence. This article examines the integration of the provincial political elite into the national elite through the case study of Iuliu Maniu. Focusing on the examination of his political activity within the national state, the article reveals his transformation into a major national leader by pointing out his main political positions and actions from the rise of his political career in the democratic regime to its decline in the authoritarian regimes. The article concludes that Maniu is the best-known example of a provincial political leader who rose to national prominence.
Keywords – policy, union, leadership, nation, Transylvania

Cosmina Paul, Does the Romanian Jew Exist? A Historical Inquiry into Metaphors of Identity, p. 415
Abstract – The present paper sets the scene for the debate on the hyphenated identity of the Romanian Jew. If recently similar works are carried out for Central and Eastern European countries, the question of the Romanian Jew has not been yet touch upon. Here too, the question stays as an issue of research rather than an assertion. A historical inquiry is undertaken in order to look for the preconditions and contexts that might facilitate the understanding of how identities become fluid under the religion reforms, nationalism and modernity and what changed in the senses over belonging and loyalty in the Romanian nation building process.
Keywords – Romanian Jew, hyphenated identity, religious reforms, modernity

Ioana Cosman and Aurora Szentagotai, Psychological Approaches in the Study of Holocaust Survivors’ Personal History, p. 427
Abstract – The present study aims to identify how the personal history of Holocaust survivors was influenced by the traumatic event they have experienced. It is an interdisciplinary approach that brings together the fields of history and psychology. As a working method it was used a semi-structured interview that was applied to 32 Holocaust survivors from Northern-Transylvania. Those themes that met the criteria of emotional disturbances were thereafter identified and analyzed in the present research.
Keywords – Holocaust, Personal History, Survival, Trauma, Psychological Approach

Lavinia Snejana Stan, Jumping in Freezing Waters: Local Communities and Escapees on the Danube during the Cold War, p. 437
Abstract – This paper investigates the permeability of the Romanian-Yugoslav border on the Danube during the Cold War, which challenges the traditional perception of the perfect closure of the borders in Communist Romania. Using an oral historical approach, the research tries to explain that smuggling merchandise and people were long-term surviving strategies for borderland communities. In spite of political issues such as the diachronically changing Romanian–Yugoslav bilateral relations during the second half of the 20th century, borderland people continued to cross—and to assist other to cross—to the other side
Keywords – oral history, smuggling, Cold War, border, communism, Romania, Yugoslavia

Mihai Croitor, From Moscow to Beijing: Romania and the Mediation of the Sino-Soviet Split, p. 449
Abstract – The post-1989 historiography disseminated, as a fact, the mediation by Romania of the Sino-Soviet conflict in 1964, leading to a one-month suspension of the polemic on the general line of the communist movement. This idea was rooted in the preamble of the 1964 Declaration, disseminated in the Romanian historiography as the “Declaration of Independence.” This paper is trying to decode the main political-diplomatic evolutions which eventually lead the Romanian authorities to “mediate” the Sino-Soviet conflict, as well as to reveal the obscure reasons behind this decision.
Keywords – Marxism, revisionism, Sino-Soviet Split, mediation, ideology

Sanda Borşa, Between Persuasion and Coercion: The Collectivization of Agriculture in Romania (1949–1962), p. 461
Abstract – Officially launched during the March 3-5, 1949 plenary meeting, the collectivization of agriculture caused deep transformations of the Romanian villages. Given the vast rural population at the end of the Second World War, the Romanian communist regime decided to pursue the socialist transformation of agriculture at all costs as long as it accomplished the subjugation of the rural population. For this purpose, the communist authorities used manipulation and persuasion, on the one hand, and, on the other, an entire arsenal of coercive means: economic pressures, imprisonments and convictions of the peasants.
Keywords – collectivization, persuasion, propaganda, repression, rural community

Manuela Marin, The Romanian Communist Propaganda and the Public Opinion: The Case of the Atheist-Scientific—Propaganda in Alba County, p. 473
Abstract – My paper proposes an analysis of the manner in which the atheist-scientific propaganda was organized at the level of Alba County and it follows two main objectives. The first one refers to the institutional dimension, more precisely to the identification of those central institutions, respectively the local (county) ones involved in the transmission of the atheist propagandist message. The second perspective evaluates the way in which the public opinion from Alba County reacted to this type of propaganda.
Keywords – propaganda, public opinion, communism, atheism, creative resistance

Sînziana Preda, Religious Identity, Regional Identity: The Pentecostals of Arad County, p. 485
Abstract – Since 1989, the interest of the Romanian scientific world for the Neo-protestants communities remains relatively low. For example, the referential for research on Pentecostal religious denomination includes religious works and some monographs derivers their approaches of social and human sciences field. Our study is focused on several Pentecostal communities (Bata, Zăbalţ) in Arad County, a region with significant numbers of Neo-protestant adherents, and it aims at identifying the ways of building their own image and the image of the Other, with a different faith, considering the double minority status, religious and regional. We intended to observe the extent to which regional identity customize faith options and how confession redefines the interplay of social actors, collectively and individually. The collected testimonials outline a portrait of religious coexistence (with extensions onto the social), even if they are impregnated by a double subjectivity, and it also outlines the socio-economic realities in rural area of Arad County.
Keywords – Pentecostals, conversion, coexistence, identity, religious minority

• Varia, p. 497

Tudor Sălăgean, The Mongol Invasion of 1241–1242 in Transylvania: Military and Political Preliminaries, p. 499
Abstract – Better prepared than other Central-European countries to face the Mongol onslaught, Transylvania opposed to the invaders a much stronger resistance. Led by Kadan and Büri, the Mongols managed to break the Transylvanian defensive system only in the last days of March, at a time when the other invader armies have already reached the surroundings of Buda or conquered Krakow. Within this ampler expansion of the western world, Transylvania had played a role yet insufficiently highlighted so far, but which explains the reasons for which this province was such an important objective for the great Tartar offensive. The 1241 invasion was the event that annulled most progresses Christian Europe had made eastwards at that time, putting an end to a century of colonization and crusade.
Keywords – Transylvania, Mongol Invasion 1241–1242, Cuman steppe, Teutonic Order, Dominican Order, Cumanian bishopric, East European Crusade

Ciprian Firea, The Parish Priests of the Saxons as Patrons of the “Arts”: A Contribution to an Ecclesiastical Prosopography of Medieval Transylvania, p. 511
Abstract – The present article analyses several “indicators” of patronage (such as donor portraits, inscriptions, coat of arms etc.) extant in different medieval churches of southern Transylvania. The analysis has a twofold goal. On the one hand it argues that, especially in localities of a second rank from the Universitas Saxonum, the person of the parish priest was the most conspicuous figure in respect of “artistic” patronage. With this aim, it considers a series of case studies, some of which are already known, but the majority is yet unpublished. It provides evidence of the patronage enterprises of parish priests (such as building stages, internal decoration, donation of various liturgical items etc.) trying at the same time to identify their promoters. The analysis comprises visual and documentary sources, heraldry and inscriptions. On the other hand, it contributes to a much-needed but hitherto unpublished ecclesiastical prosopography of Transylvania. One of the results of these enquiries and case studies was to lead me to a more accurate comprehension of the individual careers and biographies of parish priests. Some of them will be considered in the following pages.
Keywords – Transylvanian Saxons, late medieval art and architecture, patronage, parish priests, ecclesiastical prosopography, heraldry, inscriptions, medieval universities

Giordano Altarozzi, Echi letterari italiani nella Transilvania del XIX secolo, p. 533
Abstract – The 19th century is the age of nationalities – During this “long century”, several peoples become aware of their historical individuality. But the process of national claim is not the same in the Western and Eastern part of the Old Continent. In South-Eastern Europe, the modern State comes up against several resistances; this delay produces a similar one in the affirmation of the national belonging’s sense. During the XIXth century, political Romantism emphasizes the differences, while the youngest nations search their own particularities, stressing the ethno-linguistic aspect, easier to identify; so, national language and national literature become identitary elements of primary importance. To develop them, they look for a model in Western Europe, finding it in the most advanced States and especially in Italy, that is still fighting for independence and national unity.
Keyword – Transylvania, Risorgimento, Italy, National Movement

Arthur Viorel Tuluş, The Illusion of Homogeneity: The Jewish Community from the Lower Danube and from Southern Bessarabia, p. 547
Abstract – The establishment of Greater Romania drew with it a number of drawbacks, including the inclusion in the new frontiers of a number of high percentages of people belonging to diverse ethnic groups, the Jews being one of them. The tripling of the Jewish population by including in addition to the “Romanized” Jews of the Old Kingdom, a powerful community of “Germanized” Jews in Bukovina, “Magyarized” in Transylvania and “Russified” in Bessarabia, raised the issue of their homogeneity. In time, the image of a uniform and homogeneous Jewish community across the country was given, for different reasons, either by their own political and religious leaders or by the Romanian antisemitic ultranationalist forces (extreme right). Our study aims at examining precisely this so-called homogeneity and unity of the Jewish minority in the interwar period, by systematically analyzing a particular case, namely the region around the mouths of the Danube. Although at first glance the area surrounding the mouths of the Danube seems to be a fairly narrow area, in fact it announces to be interesting, sociologically speaking, representative, including portions of the following historical regions: Muntenia (Râmnicu Sărat and Brăila counties), Moldavia (the counties of Covurlui, Fălciu Putna, Tecuci and Tutova), Dobrudja (Tulcea county) and Bessarabia (the counties Cahul, Cetatea Albă and Ismail).
Keywords – The homogeneity of the Jewish Community, the Lawer Danube area, the southern Bessarabia, the interwar Romania, the Romanian antisemitism

Luminiţa Dumănescu, Consideration on the Process of Family Transformations in Communist Romania, p. 559
Abstract – In this study we suggest that the communist period, through the mechanisms of urbanization, industrialization and mass education changed the Romanian family in all of its aspects: structure, functions, size, roles, power, gender roles and so on. We argue that disruption is the proper term for describing the process of family transformations. Our conclusion is that, paradoxically, the roots of the modern Romanian family originate in the communist period even though one could claim that there is no such thing as modernity or modernism in communism!
Keywords – family, communism, Romania, nuclear family, traditional family, internal migration, social mobility, family disruption

Ioan Hosu, Facets of Development: Evolutions and Challenges, p. 569
Abstract – The issue of socio-economic development represents the central concerns for any community, whether urban or rural. The theoretical approach or the empirical models of development place the development issue in very different contexts, which, at first glance, discourage by their variety and multiplicity. Regardless of the historical period, the type of community, the problems to be overcome, the development issue maintains the same bench marks or principles around which the theorists’ and practitioners’ approaches revolve. Thus, we talk about theoretical concepts and action plans that express a desire for social change manifested in a community. The methodological frameworks, the theoretical concepts, the designed and implemented development models represent some of the elements that describe the vitality of social sciences in relation to the development issue.
Keywords – development, values, social relations, community resources, community.

Wilhelm Tauwinkl, Towards Formulating Some Theoretical Principles to Evaluate the Accuracy of Translating a Medieval Theological Text: A Case Study of the Romanian Language, p. 577
Abstract – The relation between a translation and the original work can vary from perfect equivalence (the case of converting a computer programme from one programming language to another) to the lack of any connection between the two (the imaginary case possible in certain circumstance described in the article). In the quest for criteria to assess the accuracy of a translation, the article analyses the possibility to apply the criteria suggested by Thomas Aquinas for evaluating the work of a good translator to the case of translating a medieval theological text into Romanian. Certain particularities of the Romanian tradition of translation and some linguistic phenomena recently noticed ask for specific solutions, analysed in the present study.
Keywords – meaning ambiguity, Middle Ages, Romanian language, translation accuracy, Ferdinand de Saussure, Thomas Aquinas

• List of Authors 589

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