Thinking the Future through the Past: National Conference of Ph.D. Candidates in a Historical Location: Haţeg County, Romania (September 2010), Edited by Oana-Mihaela Tămaş

Contents/Sommaire

Editor’s Note,Oana-Mihaela Tămaş, p. 11
 
Ancient History and Archaeology, p. 15

Tibor-Tamás Daróczi, Anamorphosis in Archaeology—Aspects of Phenomenology and Perception in Interpretations of Anthropogenic Material Culture, p. 17

Abstract – The object of this paper is to present a theory of cultural change in archaeology, especially in relation to anthropogenic material culture. It will place the major elements of cultural change (the environment, humans, anthropogenic material culture, and present day perspective) in a single, wide-ranging description of the processes. These elements will be based on concepts and processes of phenomenology, Peircean trichotomy and pragmatism, which in turn will be adapted for the needs of the description of a cultural process with special attention to archaeology. At the end of this, a small excursus will show how such a system might be applied and used in archaeological research. The aim of such an attempt is to balance the interpretations of present-day archaeologists and scholars of the humanities with the abovementioned variables, which all equally influence cultural change. Such an attempt will also provide a frame of argumentation and understanding for writer and reader alike.

Keywords Phenomenology, perception, Peircean trichotomy, cultural change theory.

Cătălin Cristescu, Contributions to the Study Methodology of Dacian Pottery, p. 33

Abstract The goal of this paper is to present the main contributions of the Romanian archaeological literature regarding Dacian pottery and the most cited Western papers concerning pottery studies. Furthermore, I have tried to outline the possible directions to follow in promoting Dacian pottery studies and to connect those to the principal theories on ancient ceramics. Authors researching Dacian pottery seldom discussed theoretical concepts regarding ceramic methodology, generally taking for granted the ideas presented earlier in the literature. This practice led to the perpetuation of some incorrect denominations, to dissensions in choosing the proper terminology, to many and different classifications, and to virtually little progress in the field. However, I chose to present the positive contributions of the Romanian archaeologists, as these are still fundamental to any approach on Dacian ceramics. Studying the international literature confirmed my initial belief that the study of pottery does not require a single rigid methodology, but a simple and pertinent one, ready to adapt to the new theoretical tendencies.

Keywords – Dacian culture, methodology, ceramic theory, Dacian pottery

Ştefania Voicu, Les artistes de la parole et leur sources de connaissance dans la Grêce Archaïque, p. 43

AbstractThe purpose of this paper is to identify the artists of the logos, to see what did the Greeks understand by what we call today art craft, under whose name/authority did they speak, by which means did they spread the knowledge (diachronically and synchronically – meaning the writing and the oral means), the way those means corroborated with the intellectual traits (for example inherited traits, whether we can speak of learning techniques, the presence of material contexts which can legitimate the discourse – see the case of Hesiod who beholds the laurel scepter or of Pithy, inspired in her oracles by the telluric emanations from beneath Apollo’s tripod), what meant for a fact assuming an art craft and what were the consequences. The inspiration of the Muses was the discreet influx of the divine wisdom in the art craft of poets, the ecstasy and the enthusiasm were means of communication with the oracular divinities for the prophets. Even so, were the artists of the logos only instruments for the divine intervention? Which were the traits that made the artists be the chosen ones? Are there inherited qualities or acquired ones? Why were the oral means favored in a society that wasn’t estranged from writing? What were the premises which allowed reconsidering the art craft – from the word inspired and then recited to the crafted poem, a product of intellectual effort? These are only a few questions upon I intend to reflect.

KeywordsArtists, knowledge, intellect, memory

Diana Creţu, The Silphium Plant and Cyrene Perfume, p. 55

Abstract – According to Herodotus, Cyrene, the original capital of ancient Cyrenaica and one of the biggest Greek colonies, was founded by Battus in 631 B.C. Cyrene was founded as a colony of the Greeks from Thera (the modern Santorini), itself a Spartan colony. In the classical period, the city flourished due to trade and to the export of cereals, wine, olive oil and mainly of silphium. The plant was part of the Umbelliferae family, genus Ferula. From its roots they extracted a flavored juice, used in contraception, as a medicine and as a spice. It was mainly used in producing the famous Cyrene perfume. It was exported in bottles called aryballoy, alabastros and lekythoy in the entire Mediterranean basin. Eventually, it became so expensive that, during the Battiad monarchy, a monopoly over silphium was requestedthe plant which contributed to the prosperity of the town, turning it into a real emporium. Silphium became the main source of economic power in Cyrene. Its excessive use led to its disappearance in the Hellenistic era, when Libya was given over to Rome. Under these circumstances, the Libyans tried to find silphium elsewhere, under the guise of a species called Assa foetida or Thapsia garganica. Could it be possible that silphium disappeared in that area only to be discovered in another one? The plant is now almost absent from archaeological documents and its extinction, probably in the first centuries of our era, remains a mystery that is far from being solved. Only a multidisciplinary research could now offer a permanent solution to the silphium question. Only the chemical and pharmacological toxicity tests could establish once for all a relationship between today’s Umbelliferae plants and the ancient silphium.

Keywords – Cyrene, Battos, silphium, perfume, Thapsia garganica

Maria Corina Nicolae, Cult Images and Mithraic Reliefs in Roman Dacia, p. 67

AbstractThe use of images in religious rituals might be considered an essential practice, integrating them into the spiritual life of the antiquity. The festivals, in which images were periodically dressed, paraded, washed and worshiped, stand as a proof of the religious dimension of these artifacts. The question that arises is what kind of images might be considered cultic representations and could there be certain features likely to identify these cultic media? The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the means of representation and the significance of the cults attested on the territory of the province of Dacia, focusing on the relief representations of the Mithraic religion. The generally accepted thought is that a cult object is symbolized only by statues, while relief representations fall into the votive category. It is believed that only statues occupied a central place in the temple, receiving donations and other kinds of manifestations in order to demonstrate the divinity’s veneration by the worshiper. This hypothesis is based on the ancient Greeks’ belief that the divinity had the same nature as the humans, and thus anthropomorphism was the Greek solution for the representation of the deity. Nevertheless, there are several cults which have the relief as a main form of representation, central among them being the Mithraic cult, and thus the question that arises, and which we try to answer, is whether a representation is a cult image or not.

KeywordsCult image, Mithras, iconography, votive relief

Elena Emilia Ştefan, Le tremblement de terre de 62 ap. J.-C. selon le témoignage de Sénèque, p. 77

AbstractThe purpose of this article is to analyses the significance of the earthquakes in the Roman society of the first Century A.D. The research is based on book VIth from Seneca’s Naturals Questions about earthquakes. The earthquakes are extraordinary phenomena, feared by the humans because of their supernatural connotation. Seneca’s explanation of the earthquakes begins with a case study, the earthquake which stroked Campania in February 62 A.D., a year before his writing on earthquakes. His attitude toward the earthquake, a contemporary event, is characterized by rational thought, criticizing the common opinion based on gods’ intervention. In consequence, the analysis of Seneca’s relation on earthquakes underlines the existence of two major interpretations of meteorological phenomena. One, called “scientific”, focuses on explaining and describing natural phenomena. The religious interpretation is interested in the effects of this kind of events and in developing solutions for preventing them by performing expiatory rituals.  

KeywordsEarthquakes, science in Antiquity, stoic philosophy, mirabilia, religious signs.

Daniela Aurelia Budihală, Lower Mureş Valley in the Mid-3rd Century A.D. in the Light of Numismatic Finds, p. 89

Abstract – The study intends to analyze the economic relations between the Roman province of Dacia and the barbarians living west of it, on the basis of numismatic finds. As a political entity, the Iazygian Plain was situated between the Roman provinces of Dacia and Pannonia. The Mureş played an important part during Antiquity, because it was navigable and thus it represented the shortest way between the two provinces since the Danube was too far away. The artifacts and coin hoards constitute very important sources which can offer information on the economic, social, and political life in the Lower Mureş Valley. Together with the epigraphic sources and the stratigraphic context in which they were found, the coins can offer us information on social changes and strata, wars, and commercial routes.

KeywordsCoins, barbarians, Romans, Marcomannic Wars, trade

Alexandru Dudău, The Iconography of Genius in the Roman Province of Dacia—A Commented Corpus, p. 109

Abstract – This article refers to the concept of genius as designating a Roman deity, with canonical features, attributes and competence domains (i.e. religious functions). In the light of some major achievements regarding the images of Roman Genii, published in the last decades in the international literature, taking into account the dispersed and not always accurate information on the iconography of the Genii in Roman Dacia, it seemed appropriate to gather material relating to images of Genii from this province, to briefly comment on their features and significance and to provide a typological assignment. From a list of approx. 30 deities that have received a genius “label” in the scholars’ works, this corpus presents the 8 (5 certain and 3 debatable) known figurative portrayals of Genii in Roman Dacia, mostly sculptures in marble or limestone, from the Roman settlements of Apulum, Cristeşti (Mureş Dep.), Drobeta, Potaissa, Romula, Samum, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, datable in the 2nd or 3rd century AD. The Genii depicted on these monuments are mostly provincial illustrations for the social Genii, pertaining to the Genius publicus iconographical type, but some have unusual details: e.g. the Genii from Apulum and Cristeşti, seen as divine guardians of a nauta shown in his boat; the Mithraic appearance of the Genius from Potaissa; the very late (3rd c. AD) cult image of a togate, capite velato, Genius Augusti.

KeywordsRoman religion, Roman Dacia, Genius, iconography, cult of the Genii.

Andrea Cumurciuc, The Cult of Springs in Roman Dacia on the Basis of Epigraphic Evidence, p. 125

Abstract – The cult of springs is a religious phenomenon known since the Neolithic period. During its evolution the cult acquired a number of values and traditions, and by the time of the Roman Empire it became a mixture of diverse cultural influences. On the territory of Roman Dacia, the existence of the cult was observed at Băile Herculane. The protector of the hot springs is the god Hercules, associated with Fontes Calides and Genium Locus, all of them having healing attributes. The Germisara hot springs are under the protection of Nymphs, of the goddess Diana and the medicine gods Aesculapius and Hygia. These gods received many offerings, placed around the natural cave of the hot spring. A sanctuary dedicated to a spring existed for sure at Călan, but unfortunately the only part preserved is a pool dug into the cliff, and an inscription dedicated to Hercules. The Illyrian miners from Alburnus Maior dedicated votive altars to the Nymphs and to Neptune, both representing terrestrial waters, a part of their professional activity. The springs were also worshipped in the sanctuaries of other gods. Two sacred fountains were found inside the sanctuary of Aesculapius and Hygia at Ulpia Traiana, and an inscription was dedicated to Fontibus Aesculapii et Hygiae. At Apulum we know about the existence of another sanctuary of Aesculapius and Hygia, but the only fountain mentioned is the one belonging to the god Aeternus. Other possible spring sanctuaries existed at Săcelu, but water could be worshipped also in public spaces through a nymphaeum, such as the one in the Ulpia Traiana forum.

Keywords – Băile Herculane, Germisara, Nymphs, Neptune, Aesculapius

Raluca Pop-Chendea, The Formulas of Funerary Inscriptions in Roman Dacia, p. 133

AbstractThis study is meant as an overview of the inscription itself, from an initial form to a vastly complex one, full of secondary information, as well as of the formulas which generally become commonplace. We will subsequently analyze a few poetical epitaphs and a series of funerary legal notions encountered in inscriptions, epithets such as laudationes post mortem,and the financial implications of erecting such a monument. Regarding the formulas, most of the inscriptions begin with the well-known dedication to the Dii Manes, although there are plenty of examples when the inscription begins ex abrupto with no dedication, directly mentioning the name of the deceased. The second formula, counting by the number of attestations, is the one dedicating to the memory of the deceased. Fewer in number are the ones dedicated to Dis Inferis Manibus Sacrum or Dis Manibus Sacrum. Even so, among all these standard formulas, we find an original one of Dacia, referring to an Inmatura fortuna. The ending formulas are as commonplace as the initial ones (hic situs est, hic situs est, sit tibi terra levis, faciendum curaverunt, bene merenti posuit).

KeywordsFunerary inscription, Roman Dacia, Dis Manibus, Memoriae, hic situs est, hoc monumentum herdem non sequetur.

Emilian Drăgan, The Roman Soldier’s Equipment in the 1st–3rd Centuries ad, p. 141

AbstractThe Roman soldier, during the Principality age, had the best military equipment of his time. Thanks to this equipment, the Roman army managed to guard for 3 centuries an empire that covered half the known world. In the 1st century AD the equipment evolved gradually, but around the mid 2nd century AD it had a fast evolution due to the Marcommanic wars. In the 3rd century AD it absorbed German and Parthian influences, following slow changes in battle tactics and with new units being brought into the Roman army. Basically, the Roman soldier’s equipment included, besides the wool clothing and leather footwear, a helmet, armor, shield, spear and sword. From the simple, republican helmet that had a calotte and cheek covers, to the 3rd century helmet with a back cover and a frontal mask with many decorations on the calotte and cheek covers, the protection was increased by adding two transverse bars on top after the Dacian wars. The armor worn at the beginning of the 1st century by the Roman soldiers was of 3 types: lorica hamata, lorica squamata and lorica segmentata. The main defensive weapon was the shield, made out of wood or thick leather stretched on wood. The main iron part, named umbo, had the role of keeping together the parts of the shield. Legionnaires used a rectangular shield, while auxiliaries had hexagonal and round shields. The gladius was the close combat weapon used by the Roman infantry, and the cavalry had the sphata. As an offensive weapon the Roman troops used the bow, the hasta or lancea, and the pilum. The Roman bow was a composite one, reinforced in the middle and at the ends with stag bone or horn. Adding to this, the soldiers also wore leather strips with metal hobnails in front of the belt, military decorations, hobnails on the sole of the footwear, and a crest on the officers’ helmets; all these made the Roman soldier look impressive in front of his enemies.

KeywordsEquipment, army, weapons, helmet, pilum

 
The Middle Ages, p. 153
 

Robert-Marius Mihalache, The Holy See’s Intervention in the Struggle for the Occupation of the Hungarian Throne (1290–1310), p. 155

AbstractThis study attempts to present the major changes that occurred in the history of the Hungarian royal institution between 1290 and 1310. After the death of King Ladislaus IV, who was also known as the Cuman and had no successor, the Hungarian royalty experienced a rather difficult period. Several heirs on the maternal side expressed their desire to ascend the throne of Hungary. The pope followed closely the situation in this kingdom, since he was the head of the Pontifical Monarchy, an institution known as Christianitas or Societas Christiana, to which Hungary also belonged. The pope made his presence felt through his legates, special envoys sent there to resolve the matter of the continuity of the Hungarian throne. In this segment of time, four legates de latere were dispatched to Hungary, which attests the extremely acute character of the “Hungarian question.” The pontifical legates dispatched to Hungary during this period had to resolve political rather than religious issues, proving once again the force of the Roman Curia, which held not only spiritual power, but also temporal might. By virtue of this, Rome was entitled to intervene in the kingdoms that formed Societas Christiana and to oversee the evolutions of these regalities; this was made possible by the “ministry of royalty,” a role that each European regality assumed on acknowledging the pontifical suzerainty, as Hungary also did in the late tenth century.

KeywordsLegatus de latere, Hungarian Throne, Charles Robert of Anjou, excommunication.

Zoltan Iusztin, Homines Regis. Institutionelle Aspekte aus dem ersten Teil des 14. Jahrhunderts aus dem Gebiet von Siebenbürgen und dem mittelalterlichem Banat, p. 165

Abstract – Homines Regis – Institutional Aspects during the First Half of the 14th Century in the field of medieval Transylvania and Banat – One of the many key factors of the medieval state is the function known as homo regius. From a social point of view, this office seems to be a local extension of the monarchy, as the bailiff is the representative and even the substitute of the sovereign and the person in charge with passing forward and implementing the ruler’s orders. In most cases, documents mention the bailiff in relation to issues of ennoblement and conferring proprietary rights, his role being that of claiming ownership in the name of the king and of subsequently reporting the events that took place on the spot. Homo regius was usually accompanied by a representative of the councils, convents or churches, institutions which would compile an on-site report of his achievements and submit it to the king. However, the bailiff’s responsibilities were not limited to these issues; in some cases his tasks included investigating and reporting the situations of the different domains or properties, establishing and setting their limits and borders, investigating the complaints of the parties involved in court trials, or acting as a witness before the king or the judges in court matters. The large number of written documents which mention the bailiff invest this function with a particular degree of importance amongst feudal ranks.

KeywordsHomines regis, husband of the king, medieval institutions, Chapter, Convention, Charles Robert of Anjou

Diana-Maria Eşanu, Some Aspects Concerning the Itineraries of the Princely Consorts in Moldavia during the 15th and the 16th Centuries, p. 179

Abstract – During the Middle Ages, the reign was an itinerant one, which made the rulers’ family reside for most of the year outside the main residence, at the other princely estates throughout Moldavia. In these conditions, the princely consorts’ travels were closely connected with those of the rulers, whom they usually accompanied. According to the historical sources, especially the narrative ones, the locations visited by the princely consorts of Moldavia in the 15th – 16th centuries were either habitual, or exceptional. The habitual destinations includes the princely consorts’ daily walks, as well as the official travels or visits, which they undertook during the periods of political stability, both within the country and outside it. In the latter case, of the exceptional destinations, the attention moves to the refuge or the exile of the ruler’s family, given that the internal situation of the country forced them to leave their residence; such withdrawals were performed in a hurry and the participants made their way either to known territories that belonged to them, or to neighboring and friendly countries, which provided protection and supported their restoration. According to their specificity, these exceptional displacements of the rulers’ family drew the historians’ attention more than the habitual ones, which, by their common nature, did not represent a subject important enough for them to deal with. Among the families subjected to such wandering we can mention those of Peter Rareş, Alexander Lăpuşneanu or Peter the Lame, which enjoyed large coverage in the writings of the time.

KeywordsItinerary, princely consort, destination, refuge, wandering

Florina-Georgiana Gheorghică, The Princely Domain of Bădeuţi, p. 191

AbstractIn 1487, Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia, celebrated his victory against Wallachia by building a church devoted to the Holy Martyr Procopius in the village of Bădeuţi. At the same time, the construction of a princely residence also started nearby, endowed with a domain comprising the villages of Crăiniceşti, Drăgăneşti, Ivancicăuţi, Părlişani, Mândreşti, Pleşinţi, Suceviţa, Satul Mare and Volovăţ. This is rather surprising for that period, since all the other princely residences were usually based in cities; the number of villages meant to economically sustain it was also considerable. The present study briefly analyzes the remaining information on this particular princely domain, which was organized in a geographic area of great importance for the creation of the Moldavian feudal state. Our research relies exclusively upon documentary information, since the results of the past archeological excavations have not been published yet. To fully understand the importance of the princely residence of Bădeuţi, it is essential to identify the possible answers to the following questions: Why was it necessary to build such a residence in a geographic area situated between the domain of the Putna Monastery and the Bishopric of Rădăuţi? Is it possible to establish the approximate date of its construction?

KeywordsStephen the Great, Moldavia, Bădeuţi, Volovăţ

Anca Ramona Hapca, Aspects of the Judicial Relations between the Inhabitants of Maramureş and Bistriţa Reflected in the Official Correspondence from the 16th Century, p. 201

Abstract – This study presents particular aspects of the development of judicial relations between Maramureş county and Bistriţa district, during the sixteenth century, as shown by the correspondence exchanged by the two regions. The main sources for the investigation of this topic are the official letters exchanged by the authorities, found in Bistriţa City Hall collection of the Cluj County Division of the National Archives. Overall, life in the Middle Ages did not run its course smoothly and evenly but it was disturbed by natural disasters, epidemics, wars, murders, robberies and other misdeeds. The official letters referring to judicial issues cover various legal problems (injustice, theft, burglary, murders) that the society faced in that era and provide information related to the way in which various crimes were dealt with. Seeking to resolve some incidents or disputes between the inhabitants, the leaders of the two regions used to write to each other as “good neighbors and friends.” The problems of these people, whose interests were defended by their leaders, generated an exchange of official documents related to legal matters. While the two communities differed both in terms of the dominant ethnic groups (Romanian and Saxon, respectively) and of the political-administrative organization, one may speak of a cooperation between the two territorial entities in an attempt to solve the people’s problems.

KeywordsJudicial relations,Maramureş and Bistriţa documents, the 16th century, Bistriţa archive.

 Constantin Butnaru, The Titles and Origin of Neagoe Basarab, p. 211

Abstract – The titles of any sovereign were like a “visitingcard” that served to introduce him in both official and personal circumstances. Therefore, this text aims at analyzing under several aspects the titles held by Neagoe Basarab, the prince of Wallachia during 1512-1521. The reason for choosing this ruler for a case study is closely related to his uncertain origin, suggesting that the attribution of certain titles (Io Basarab, although he most likely was a member of the Craiovescu family) was illegitimate, representing in fact a genealogical claim dictated by the circumstances in which Neagoe found himself in 1512. Nonetheless, regardless of his origins, the image of the voivode could be kept especially due to his titles, which became part of his biography and permanence. At the same time, the exact reproduction during his reign of various appellatives (Io, voivode, prince, sole ruler, (herţeg) Duke) reinforces the existence of a standardized form/protocol according to which the official documents were drafted. The use of these titles, irrespective of the situation, was part of an exercise of power; in this exercise of power, the ruler’s gesture was an expression of his authority, and the written document was an epiphany of his power.

KeywordsNeagoe Basarab, origin, titles, genealogical claim, legitimacy

Ciprian Rad, Transylvania and The Thirty Years’ War during the Reign of Gabriel Bethlen (1613–1629)—Contributions to Romanian Historiography, p. 221

Abstract – Under Ottoman occupation, Transylvania could not have intervened to support the cause of Czech insurgents without the consent of the House of Osman, whose indirect involvement in the conflict was devised so as not to break the peace treaty with the Habsburgs. The participation of Transylvania in the Thirty Years’ War was an important component of Gabriel Bethlen’s foreign policies. As his predecessors before him, Gabriel Bethlen envisioned not only the remaking of Royal Hungary, but also aspired to the royal crown, an important step towards achieving independence. The stability and prosperity of the kingdom during his reign, his military expertise acquired prior to his ascension to the throne, together with his political realism, afforded Prince Bethlen great advantages in the conflicts with the Imperialists, as noticeable in the peace treaties. The successes could not have been easily disregarded by the Romanian historiography. Starting with Nicolae Iorga, Ioan Lupaş and others, up to Cristian Luca, our authors wrote original studies with regard to Prince Gabriel Bethlen or the participation of Transylvania in the Thirty Years’ War. The originality of Romanian historiography consists in approaching this subject from the point of view of the impact of the event over the whole Romanian civilization, drawing on Hungarian, Turkish, Latin or Italian documents.

KeywordThirty Years’ War, balance of power, Transylvania, historical sources, Romanian historiography

Mihai-Bogdan Atanasiu, An Unknown Mid-18th Century Manuscript—The Great Obituary of Doljeşti Monastery (1758), p. 231

Abstract – The present study, which begins with the enumeration of certain general data regarding the importance of obituaries as historical and philological information sources, approaches a period when Moldavia was flourishing culturally—the mid-18th century. The study focuses upon one of the manuscripts drawn up in the writing room of a modest monastery in Roman County: the great Obituary of Doljeşti monastery. Discovering this unknown writing, a true chronicle of that time and an important instrument for any researcher studying the final period of the Moldavian Middle Ages, has offered us the occasion to bring to light pieces of the life and activity of commissioner Dionisie Hudici, information about his relatives and the history of his foundations, as well as regarding the biography of a scholar, Nathanail Putneanul, these being biographical and monographic mini-medallions neglected by our historiography.

Keywords – Obituary, prosopography, social history, Doljeşti, Moldavia, the 18th century.

Iuliana Sranko (Sălăvăstru), The Systematization of the Villages from Arad County—Urbarial Plans from the Second Half of the 18th Century and the Beginning of the 19th Century, p. 245

Abstract – The more nucleated aspect of these settlements was the result of administrative measures for the systematisation of villages and for including them within a particular urbarial plan. We may only speak about a genuine habitat policy in the settlements from Transylvania and Banat, promoted by the imperial authorities for economic, fiscal reasons, military and social reasons, from the eighteenth century onwards. The newer settlements with regular geometric shapes came to differ fundamentally from the villages of the previous period. Many villages of the scattered type from the plains were subjected to concentration and had their structure changed in accordance with the official decrees. The urbarial plan prepared in 1819 confirms the fact that the village of Bârsa underwent a systematisation process, the result noticeable here between that of “its being drawn to a line.” As outlined by the urbarial plan, the changes that occurred in the area of Chişineu-Cris village were the consequences of the same systematisation process. Village systematisation also had repercussions on the organisation of parishes. Thus, only the amassing of several villages into one, or the joining of a smaller village to a larger one would automatically have entailed the dissolution of a parish. This is how the implementation of the systematisation policy brought about changes to many localities in Arad, in terms of both their location and shape.

Keywords – Systematisation, village, urbarial plans, settlement.

Maria Aurelia Diaconu, Roads and Travelers through Wallachia in the 18th and 19th Centuries—Some Historical Considerations on the Communication Routes, p. 261

Abstract – The medieval history of these lands continues to fascinate both the lover of history and the researcher of this period. European historiography presently focuses on everyday life, on the historical processes that were once considered too small to deserve attention. In the early 18th century, Wallachia was a mostly rural province, with rudimentary forms of communication, yet still beautiful. Due to the interest of Austria and Russia in this area, we have the first mapping and Romanian tax assessments. Relevant are the map of Constantin Cantacuzino, printed in Padua in 1700, Schwantz’s map of 1722 and Specht’s map of 1790. These maps show the infrastructure, which is largely based on the paths and passes associated to the pastoral transhumance. Also in the second half of the 18th century begins (due to political and economic reasons) the planning of the two roads connecting Transylvania and Wallachia, one along the Olt Valley and the other on the Prahova Valley. These facilities contributed greatly to the metamorphosis of the Romanian society from a society deeply rooted in feudalism into a modern one.

Keywords – Roads, travelers, Wallachia, 18th–19th centuries

Adrian Dume, Aspects of Wine-Growing in the 18th and 19th Centuries in the Region of Crişana, p. 271

Abstract – Wine growing was one of the major occupations of the inhabitants of Crişana, occupying an important place in their material and spiritual culture. During the 18th and the 19th centuries, winemaking in Crişana reached the pinnacle, being reflected in the cultural mindset of the inhabitants of this area. Its development was caused by several elements, the most important being the natural factors and the conditions offered by this area. However, these aspects would be dealt with in a different study. Instead, drawing on archive data, in the present study we seek to highlight the importance and the magnitude of wine-growing in several areas of Crişana during the 18th and the 19th centuries.

Keywords – Wine-growing, Crişana, history, Habsburg Empire

 
The History of Art, p. 281
 

Irina Iliescu, The Hora Type Dance in the Iconography of Byzantine Tradition—A Semiotic Approach, p. 283

Abstract – The axiological background of the religious approach to dance and the reference frame of the post Byzantine painting individualize, trough it’s local and community character, the presence of the round dance. This paper attempts to identify and analyze, from a semiotic perspective, the episodes that include this choreographic typology in the mural paintings of the Romanian churches. The round dance marks three of the iconographic themes, preserved by the painted churches from the Romanian Countries, from the 16th to 18th century: Saint George’s feast, The Parable of the Prodigal Son and Psalm 149 – 150. The article argues that the significance of the ceremonial aspect of this form of social interaction should not be considered meaningful by itself but within the relation established between the different components of the image, between the dance, clothes, gesture and characters. Seen from this contextualizing point of view the dance can be perceived individualized by each viewer and can delineate the two perspectives of its existence, the social and the ritual one. The paper draws on the writings of Saussure on language and those of F. Rust on functionalist perspective on dance, in order to shape the argument and to illustrate the choreography as a form of language and attempts to justify through its disciplined and democratic meaning, the exclusive presence of the round dance in the joyful themes of biblical episodes.

Key words – Iconography, round dance, ceremony, language

Valentina-Cristina Sandu, Image as Idea and Idea as Image—Socio-political Significances of the Votive Painting of the Church of Râmnicu Sărat (Buzău). Dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin, p. 297

Abstract – The study analyzes the structure of the votive painting of the founders of the church built by Prince Constantine Brâncoveanu and his uncle, sword bearer Mihai Cantacuzino in the late 17th century. In this respect, starting from the analysis of some pictorial productions (votive paintings) I wanted to account for the way in which these representations and their contents placed in the iconographic area of the narthex may become visual documents from which we can extract information about how people sought to represent and present themselves.This study highlights the fact that votive painting is capable of communicating at a visual level a series of political, social, cultural and religious messages by means of the order in which the characters are represented. Therefore, even if we do not know to what extent the founders’ image corresponds to a program or to a real model, it surely illustrates the human representation between the data of historic reality and the idealism implicit to the status of church founder. Its content proves that the image was influenced by the different needs it had to fulfill and was adapted to the contemporary social, political and cultural context in which it was created.

Keywords – Râmnicu Sărat, Assumption of the Virgin Church, Prince Constantine Brâncoveanu, sword bearer Mihai Cantacuzino, votive paintings of the founders of the church

Raluca Betea, “The Death of Sinners is Evil”—The Personifications of Death in the Iconography of the Last Judgement in Maramureş (17th–19th Centuries), p. 307

Abstract – Although in Romanian historiography the study of the visual representations of death has seen a considerable development in the last decades, many regions have been neglected. The present article undertakes an analysis of the images of death in the iconography of the Last Judgement, painted in the Romanian wooden churches situated in the historical Maramureş County, a detailed and systematic research of this subject being absent at the time. By analyzing this visual material, I will answer the following questions: How are the personifications of death represented? What are the messages the images of death intend to transmit? In Maramureş the most frequent representation is the portrayal of death in Hell or in its proximity, as an animated skeleton or corpse. In some churches we find a peculiar image: Death is painted beside Sloth, Famine and Plague, a unique association in Christian iconography. This analysis will also take into consideration the fact that the messages transmitted through these images are part of the religious discourse, elaborated by representatives of the Church.

Keywords – Death, paintings, Romanian churches, Maramureş

Modern History in Transylvania, p. 323
 
Dan Andrei Filip,
Aspects of Rural Devotion in the Orthodox Dioceses Northwestern Part of Transylvania in the Second Half of the 19th Century, p. 325

Abstract – Religion represents an important cultural constituent of a nation, being at the same time a fundamental value without which human society could not exist. The human relationship with the Divine gives rise to feelings which are externalized through piety or devotion. This study is intended as a modest contribution to the issues of the human relationship with divinity in the Orthodox rural communities in the northwestern part of Transylvania in the second half of the nineteenth century. Archival sources provide valuable information to the study of this issue, grouped in three directions of research: the secular religious instruction, individual and collective devotion. In the rural communities, religion is the greatest spiritual activity by which everyone tries to find stability in their existence, trying to explain things which are not fully known. In a world much less literate, religious teachings had, in part, their role in coordinating the earthly existence and the religious experience. This was achieved, directly or indirectly, by three means: religious education, catechism lessons to adults, and Sunday sermons. The purpose of Christian life is eternal salvation, which can be achieved only by the grace of the Holy Spirit, which is introduced into the world through the Church, where the sacraments are administered. The sacraments analyzed in these article, in terms of individual devotion, are baptism, marriage and priesthood. Collective piety is interpreted considering the participation at the liturgy, the observance of feast days, charity and church founding.

Keywords – Religion, religious experience, individual devotion, collective devotion, religious education

Alexandru Onojescu, Between Scylla and Charybdis—The Political Journey of Dimitrie Moldovan during 1861–1867, p. 337

Abstract – The main goal of this essay is to present the political activity carried out between 1860 and 1867 by Dimitrie Moldovan, one of the most prominent figures in the Romanian national movement. Profoundly divided between his loyalty as a Romanian official at the Habsburg Court and his people’s efforts in the struggle for political and religious freedom, Moldovan finds himself in the position of giving advice to both Catholic and Orthodox leaders of Transylvania, but also to other members of the Romanian elite. His main goal was to give a sense of unity of action, regardless of religious dissent and personal interests. The paper comprises two parts. First of all, based on a comprehensive literature, the historical context in which Moldovan carried out most of his political activity will be established. After that, by bringing forward some new evidence from the National Archives, we shall attempt to present his personal and public ties with some of the most important political figures of his time.

Keywords – Transylvania, political elites, national movement, Romanian officials

Iulia-Maria Pop, The Reunions of the Greek-Catholic Schoolmasters from Transylvania during the Austro-Hungarian. Dual Monarchy—Establishment and Manifestations, p. 349

Abstract – The first teachers’ associations emerged in the German area in the early nineteenth century, at the initiative of the great pedagogue Adolph Diesterwerg. Following the German model and afterwards the Hungarian one, the Romanian Greek-Catholic schoolmasters in Transylvania created seven associations, known under the name of reunions. These were established during the Austro-Hungarian dualist system after the promulgation of Law XXXVIII/1868, which, in its Article 147, demanded the creation of these associations. The main purpose for which these organizations were established was the methodological improvement of schoolteachers using modern methods and strategies: direct access to specialist studies, having as a model lessons followed by detailed discussions, or practical activities. By way of these newly established cultural institutions, schoolmasters also desired to raise the cultural level of the Romanian population.

Keywords – Greek-Catholic schoolmasters, training methods, scientific sessions, associations, Reunions, Transylvania, Austro-Hungarian dualism.

Emøke Csapó (Chira), Gulliver’s Travels into the “Treasure City”—Cluj in the Second Half of the 19th Century, p. 361

Abstract – Despite David Livingstone’s belief that traveling is easier than writing, the nineteenth century British literature has proved him wrong, mirroring the overwhelming desire of doing, seeing, feeling everything, even through the viewpoint of an inhabitant of a far-flung region. The motto ‘be in somebody’s shoes’ encouraged both H. Ellen Browning in her “wanderings” into Hungary and the famous writer Emily Gerard, who left Transylvania after a mere two-year stay, willing at first to render Robinson Crusoe modern by means of rescuing him from that isolated land and bringing him into the real world, and regretting in the end his incapacity to re-adapt himself. Although, in secrecy, regrets give birth to tears, the lucid fin de siécle turns the nostalgia for wild regions in the remembrance of a peculiar but exceptional experience. The Cluj landscape, immortalized by these adventurous spirits, joins picturesque scenes specific to the rural world to the diversions from normality so typical of the stranger ‘from the other side of the world’, of the cultural and social life brightened up by the ancestral mentality of “la noblesse oblige”. The present study is an incursion into the life of Cluj in the second half of the nineteenth century, seen through the eyes of foreigners arrived from the British Isles, who, like innocent and curious children, try to render every gesture and scenery in words. The frame of reference under discussion allows one to meditate upon atavistic remains and the major Occidental influences, so as to eventually accept the materialization of “the bridge metaphor” according to which the Hungarians stand for the transition between the man living in the West and the one living in the Orient.

Keywords – Travel literature, nineteenth century Cluj, daily life, noble families, la noblesse oblige

Daniel I. Iancu, Nicolae Densuşianu’s Historical Discourse Reflected in the Berliner Magazine Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft, p. 373

Abstract – The paper presents various aspects concerning the way in which the historian analyzed the historical and philological works published on the Romanian territory and how he di

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