Transylvanian Review nr. 4/2011

Paradigms

Cătălin Turliuc, Cultural Nationalism and Its Evolution in Modern Romania, p. 3
Abstract Cultural Nationalism and Its Evolution in Modern Romania – The present paper tackles one of the most important issues connected with modern Romania, namely, cultural nationalism and the associationist movement. An introductory part deals with various taxonomies, definitions and opinions about nationalism in general and about cultural nationalism in particular. We present the evolutionary stages of Romanian cultural nationalism as follows: genesis (1740–1830); crystallization (1830–1860); social-political articulation (1860–1920). Some of our conclusions are: nationalism is a protean reality and should be discussed and analyzed according to different chronotopic sequences; the modern world and democracy cannot be properly understood if we ignore nationalism; cultural and political nationalism are complementary; empirical analyses are as important as theoretical approaches in order to study nationalism; when we discuss nationalism we have to keep in mind three levels: individual, state and, last but not least, ideological; cultural nationalism and cultural-national associative movements are in a strong relationship; Romanian cultural nationalism is similar to other nationalisms developed in our geopolitical area.
Keywords – cultural nationalism, modernization, associationism, nativism, emancipation, ethnonationalism


Liviu Maior, Associationnisme et autonomisation en Transylvanie aux XIXe–XXe siècles, p. 18
Abstract – Associationism and Autonomization in Transylvania in the 19th–20th Centuries – The study seeks to determine whether or not the Transylvanian Romanians actually developed a type of strategic culture during the emergence and consolidation of their national identity, of their image of themselves, aimed at furthering their political-national agenda. During the institutionalization process that took place in Transylvania, the Romanian strategic culture took the form of associationism. This was a formula of social defense and solidarity in the political-national context of Hungary, a form of activism in favor of modernization and of the organization of a Romanian society enjoying the maximum possible autonomy in relation to the state. Associationism remained a constant presence on the Romanian political-cultural agenda, reflected in petitions, memoirs and memoranda, in the activity of Romanian deputies, and in the processes of denominational democratization. First and foremost, it was a form of voluntary collective organization meant to resist the state and to refine and preserve the cultural-historical heritage.
Keywords – Transylvania, modern era, strategic culture, associationism, modernization, ASTRA


Ioan Bolovan and Liana Lăpădatu, L’Association nationale d’Arad pour la culture du peuple roumain (1863–1918): Entre local et regional, p. 29
Abstract – The Arad National Association for the Culture of the Romanian People (1863–1918): Between Local and Regional – The Arad cultural association, established in 1863, was a regional component of the Romanian civil society in Transylvania during the modern era, modeled along structures that already existed in the province and in the empire as a whole. The association developed both a scholarly-scientific agenda and a cultural one, whereby it sought to spread culture among the general population. As time went by, the latter dimension of its activity gained foremost importance, driven by the nationality principle and reducing the distance between the elite and the masses.
Keywords – associationism, civil society, cultural associations, Arad, Transylvania, Austria-Hungary


Mihai Ştefan Ceauşu, Cultural Nationalism and Associationism in Bukovina in the 19th Century, p. 44
Abstract – Cultural Nationalism and Associationism in Bukovina in the 19th Century – The moment of 1848 constituted a decisive phase in the affirmation of Romanian cultural nationalism in Habsburg Bukovina. The liberal political climate created in the Habsburg Monarchy after the fall of neo-absolutism and after the recovery of the provincial autonomy in 1861 stimulated among the Romanians the adoption of the associationist idea, felt as an organic necessity of the Romanian society of the time. This materialized in the founding of the Romanian Reading Society of Chernowitz in 1862, transformed one year later into the Society for Romanian Culture and Literature in Bukovina, which will last until the end of Austria-Hungary and even beyond. The primary aim of the society was to promote, through various methods and means, the supreme property of a people: language and culture, as forms through which its national conscience is fortified. The Bukovina educational system’s development and elevation to a fundamentally superior level through the establishment of Chernowitz University in 1875 led to the appearance of new forms of cultural associationism among the Bukovina Romanians, in the form of certain student academic societies.
Keywords – Bukovina, cultural nationalism, associationism, cultural associations, student academic societies


Europe

Titus Corlăţean, The Authority of the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Court’s Jurisprudence: The Case of Romania, p.53
Abstract – The Authority of the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Court’s Jurisprudence: The Case of Romania – The present study emphasizes the role and the authority of the European Convention on Human Rights upon the legal domestic order within the States Parties to this international instrument. Today is almost generally considered that both the text of the Convention and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights are incorporated in the national legal systems of the European states and have a legally binding force. The study presents the specific situation of Romania, where the decisions of the national Courts of Justice in the domain of human rights are based on the case law of the European Court. Also, the legal authority of the European Convention is above the common legislation, as it has the same power as the specific norms of the Constitution and may have, in exceptional cases, even a stronger legal power than the Constitution.
Keywords – legal authority, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court’s decisions, Romania

Tangencies

Şerban Turcuş, Greek Monks As Latin Bishops in the Kingdom of Hungary and in Transylvania (11th–12th Centuries): An Anthroponymic Contribution , p. 65
Abstract – Greek Monks As Latin Bishops in the Kingdom of Hungary and in Transylvania (11th–12th Centuries): An Anthroponymic Contribution – One of the most sensitive areas of onomatology in the medieval era, regarding the anthroponymic dimension, is the part reserved to the names of the clergy. It is significant because it finely detects the impulses coming from the area controlled by the Church, both Roman and Byzantine. Given the local cultural-ecclesiastic and also ethnic mixture, the bishops and other prelates deemed Latin thus reveal by their own names another career and ethnic background than the ones alleged by a certain nationalistic historiography. The names of the hierarchs present in the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th century is quite a precise barometer for the ritual ambivalence and the political vacillation of the kingdom between Christianitas and the still functioning Byzantine Commonwealth, while on the horizon—through the agency of the provosts and of other institutional structures—the Holy See introduced the hierocratic reform.
Keywords – onomatology, anthroponymy, clerical anthroponymy, Kingdom of Hungary, Transylvania

Alexandru Simon, Propaganda and Matrimony: Dracula between Hunyadi and Habsburg, p. 80
Abstract – Propaganda and Matrimony: Dracula between Hunyadi and Habsburg – Vlad III the Impaler of Wallachia (Dracula) is usually believed to have been married to a close relative of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (either a half-sister or a cousin of the monarch). New and older sources reveal however that Vlad III was married in fact twice to a close relative of Matthias Corvinus (the first time in 1462 and the second time around 1474–1475). These two marriages thus re-open the controversial question of the spread and nature of the late medieval stories on Dracula’s cruelties. Given also the fact that these stories were accepted and enhanced by the entourage of the king’s arch-enemy, Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg, it becomes unlikely that Matthias was the mastermind behind these stories in order to cover up his own anti-Ottoman failures of 1461–1462. In the end, in relation to his most important Christian neighbors, Matthias Corvinus and Stephen III of Moldavia, Vlad had two fatal flaws that dramatically affected his career and his image: he lost his throne, whereas Matthias and Stephen managed to keep theirs for decades (while their cruelties, in Transylvania in 1467–1468 and in Bohemia in subsequent years, in Matthias’s case, and, for instance, in Wallachia in the 1470s and early 1480s, in Stephen’s case, were by no means less excessive than those of Vlad), and he lacked the diplomatic skills needed to survive on the local and regional level.
Keywords – Vlad III the Impaler (Dracula), Frederick III of Habsburg, Matthias Corvinus, Stephen III of Moldavia, dynastic alliances, crusading

Sorin Şipoş and Ioan-Aurel Pop, Historian Silviu Dragomir’s Investigation File, p. 91
Abstract – Historian Silviu Dragomir’s Investigation File – For Silviu Dragomir, the Romanian historian deeply involved in the political life of King Carol II’s authoritarian regime, the end of the Second World War meant the loss of his academic position and years of detention in the communist prisons. As one of the former executives of the Cluj Agrarian Bank, he was accused of having granted a loan of 1.3 million lei from the bank’s funds in order to finance the Brick and Tile Factory of Cluj. After his imprisonment, the authorities continued to seek evidence against him, simply because he had been a minister in Goga’s government of 30 December 1937 and minister of the minorities during Carol II’s reign, between 1938 and 1940. In point of fact, as the analyzed investigation file demonstrates, Silviu Dragomir was a politician who identified himself with the national idea, which was in fact a crime in Romania after 1947. Besides, the manner in which Silviu Dragomir’s file was put together clearly shows that the action taken was illegal and done under political command.
Keywords – Silviu Dragomir, persecution of intellectuals, Securitate, investigation file

Adrian Pop, The Typology and Novelty of Eastern European Revolutions, p. 104
Abstract – The Typology and Novelty of Eastern European Revolutions – The study suggests a fresh look on the Eastern European revolutions. Firstly, it argues that Western scholarship failed to recognize the novelty of Eastern European revolutions at the time of their occurrence and in their aftermath. Secondly, grounded in the “path-dependent” school of thought and privileging a dual long and short term comparative approach, the study introduces a typology of Eastern European revolutions. Thirdly, it argues that the “self-limiting revolution,” as theorized and practiced by former Central European dissidents, offers not only a genuine contribution to the theory of revolutions, but it puts forward a viable practical strategy for the self-emancipation and self-institutionalization of civil society in the era of globalization.
Keywords – theory of revolutions, Eastern Europe revolutions, “self-limiting revolution,” civil society

Profile

Ştefan Borbély, The Violent Lenin, p. 115
Abstract – The Violent Lenin – Lenin’s childhood was draped, ever since his death and embalming in January 1924, within the folds of edulcorate encomium, hinting at the “titan’s” timely humanity and at the stainless exemplariness of his biography. Lenin did not live his life, he let himself be lived by it, drawn into the most difficult of situations. Lenin’s two-phase action—he always moved in two phases, preferring the “organization” of the second phase to the unpredictable spontaneity of the first phase—must have had an intra-family mental justification before it turned into an obsession with the revolution coordinated from a central nucleus. The death of his brother, to whom he had been very close, was a seminal moment in Lenin’s life, which facilitated his rebirth. This proved to be a double trauma since, one year before, in January 1886, his father had also died from a sudden stroke; his separation from his brother was subliminally associated in the mind of the adolescent Ilyich with the fatality of his separation from the entire family in order to adopt a new one, the “family” of the revolutionaries, who were ready to launch the struggle for a new social and political order. The ideational “family” had completely supplanted the blood-related family: the former could be “organized,” the latter could not.
Keywords – Lenin’s childhood, violence, childhood trauma, revolutionary organization, revolutionary terror

Agora

Ruxandra Cesereanu  “The Romanians” versus Ana Blandiana: Insults and Threatening Letters, p. 128
Abstract – “The Romanians” versus Ana Blandiana: Insults and Threatening Letters – This study examines and catalogues the insults and threatening letters Ana Blandiana received in the period between 1990 and 1995; these can be interpreted as samples of the core physical and moral values specific to a part of the Romanian people. In this case study, I shall deal with the threatening messages received by Ana Blandiana, because I consider them as a corpus of texts that deserves analysis in order to deconstruct the outbursts of the violent linguistic imaginary from the Romanian post-communism, which has been marked by the after-effects of communism and by a visceral release of repressed content. Like the poet herself, other personalities from post-communist Romania also received threatening letters, so much so that this case study, which focuses on the messages addressed to Ana Blandiana, aims, in fact, to scrutinize the Romanian mentality as regards the elite intellectuals who have been more or less involved in politics.
Keywords – Ana Blandiana, Romania, post-communism, Romanian mentality, insults and threatening letters

Andreea Mogoş and I. Maxim Danciu Culture journalistique et mutations socials en Roumanie au début du troisième millénaire, p. 139
Abstract – Journalistic Culture and Social Transformations at the Beginning of the Third Millenium in Romania – Postcommunist Romania inherited a journalistic culture biased by politics. The media struggled to be the fourth power, but sometimes they only became a instrument in the political arena. Therefore, to own mass communication means was very attractive for those who intended to spread ideologically charged messages. At the same time, the mass media could be considered the trigger of social change. In conclusion, at the beginning of the third millenium we can talk about a media management culture and about the development of a quality press.
Keywords – journalism, postcommunism, media trusts, media culture

Book Reviews

Ioan-Aurel Pop, “Din mâinile valahilor schismatici...” Românii şi puterea în Regatul Ungariei medievale (secolele XIII–XIV)
(reviewed by József Lukács), p. 146
Corin Braga, Du paradis perdu à l’antiutopie aux XVIe–XVIIIe siècles (reviewed by Călin Teutişan), p. 148
Flavius Solomon, Krista Zach, and Juliane Brandt, eds., Vorbild Europa und die Modernisierung in Mittel- und Südosteuropa (reviewed by Matthias Duller), p. 151

Contributors, p.160

                                                                                                    cst@academia-cj.ro
Copyright 2008 Centrul de Studii Transilvane    |    Web design: Netlogiq Cluj