Textus Testis Documentary Value and Literary Dimension of the Historical Text, Edited by SORIN ŞIPOŞ • DAN OCTAVIAN CEPRAGA • IOAN-AUREL POP

Textus Testis. Documentary Value and Literary Dimension of the Historical Text
Vol. XX, Supplement No. 3, 2011



• Editors’ Note, p. 5

• History and Political Imagery, p. 7

Ioan-Aurel Pop ,La Santa Sede, Venezia e la Valacchia nella crociata antiottomana di fine Quattrocento, p.9
Abstract - The Holly See, Venice and “Walachia” in the Framework of the Anti-Ottoman Crusade at the End of 15th Century The article underlines, by the mean of some important new sources (issued between 1474 and 1476) form the Archives of Milan, how the prince Stephen the Great (1457-1504), voievode of Moldavia (currently called Walachia in the Italian reports), has succeeded to integrate himself and his country in the anti-ottoman crusade (the so called Late Crusade). The documents show the Venetian and Papal echo of some battles between Romanian (Moldavian) troops, helped by king of Hungary Matthias Corvinus, and the Turkish army on the soil of Moldavia, in 1475 and 1476. Some main problems illustrated here are the funds gathered from Italy for the crusade, the destination of such amount of money, the confidence in Hungarian king, the real support necessary to help the “Walachian” (Moldavian) prince Stephen the Great etc. An important place in these reports is given to the “Wallachian” victory from January 1475, at Vaslui, where the Ottoman army was crushed. Stephen the Great is characterized as a “fortress of Hungary” and of the whole Christianity, very brave but in a huge need of subsidies, necessaries in order to face the new assaults of the sultan. The sources show also the disputes between the Christian powers concerning the use and the destination of funds necessaries for the anti-ottoman effort.
Keywords: anti-Ottoman crusade, Wallachia (Moldavia), Stephen the Great, the Holly See, Venice, Christian subsidies

Florin Sfrengeu, Historiography and Archaeology: Information Collected from Anonymus’ Gesta Hungarorum on the Duchy of Menumorut and on the Archaeological Research at Biharea, p. 23
Abstract - Historiography and Archaeology: Information Collected from Anonymus’ Gesta Hungarorum on the Duchy of Menumorut and Archaeological Research at Biharea The work provides information from Anonymus’ work Gesta Hungarorum on the Hungarian penetration on the territory of the duchy ruled by Menumorut, a duchy with the seat in castrum Byhor, the siege and conquest of the fortress, as well as the description of the archaeological research carried out at the earth fortress at Biharea. Gesta Hungarorum (Dees of the Hungarians) is considered an important work revealing events and realities referring to the Hungarians who had just come to Central Europe and to other peoples in the area who had to suffer because of their actions. Archaeological research at Biharea covered several stages. In 1900, P. Cseplo, the director of the Museum of Oradea, and I. Karácsonyi, a medievalist, carried out the first archaeological research at the earth fortress. They drew up different archaeological reports. In 1924-1925, M. Roska searched the area known as the Brick Yard, approximately 400-500 meters south from the earth fortress, where he discovered a large necropolis with 506 tombs most of them dating back to 11th – 14th centuries, while others dated back to 4th – 5th centuries. Rusu restarted the research at Biharea in 1954 by continuing to search the area approached by M. Roska. He did not make diggings at the earth fortress, yet he was concerned with the position and aspect of the fortress, such as topographic data provided by surface research. The archaeological research at Biharea was continued by S. Dumitraşcu in 1973. Besides several reports and surveys, the archaeologist from Oradea published the archaeological monograph entitled Biharea. The archaeological research carried out in 1998-2004 confirmed and strengthened the previous conclusions regarding the time the earth fortress was built. The time can be set to a period between the Roman epoch settlement and older early feudal settlement. The historical-archaeological research so far has shown that the main fortress in the duchy of Menumorut called castrum Byhor in Anonymus’ chronicle can be placed on the territory of Biharea, where the huge vallum is still very impressive to this day.
Keywords: Anonymus, chronicle, Biharea, archaeological research, earth fortress

Tiberiu Ciobanu, The Mediaeval History of Banat as Reflected in Monographs Compiled During the First Half of the Twentieth Century, p. 35
Abstract - The Mediaeval History of Banat as Reflected in Monographs Compiled
During the First Half of the Twentieth Century Immediately after the Great Union, a particularly keen interest was increasingly shown in the elaboration and publication of monographs in Romanian, dedicated to urban centres in Banat, and especially to Timişoara. Some contain general historical data on the locality they refer to, but we also may encounter in their pages information on the mediaeval past of the settlement in question. The most important monographs, monographic sketches or guides referring to Timişoara and Banat are: Istoricul Cetăţii Timişoara. Perla Banatului (cu diferite gravuri şi hărţi) by Lt. Col. Iosif Knezy (Timişoara, 1921); Micul Cicerone pentru oraşul Timişoara by Virgil Molin (Timişoara, 1921); Originea şi trecutul oraşului Timişoara by Emanuil Ungurianu (Timişoara, 1925); Monografia Banatului, vol. I, Situaţia geografică. Locuitorii – Comunele by Ioan Lotreanu (Institutul de Arte Grafice „Ţara”, Timişoara, 1935); Ghidul Banatului by Emil Grădinaru and Ion Stoia-Udrea (Timişoara, 1936) and Timişoara. Monografie istorică by Dr. Nicolae Ilieşiu (Timişoara, 1943).
Keywords: monograph, historiography, Banat, the Middle Ages, Timişoara, monographism, mediaeval.

Alvise Andreose, Forme e funzioni dell’autodiegesi nella Relatio di Odorico da Pordenone, p. 63
Abstract - Forms and functions of the autodiegetic perspective in Odoric of Podenone’s Relatio The present paper aims at examining the effects of autodiegetic perspective in Odoric of Podenone’s Relatio. Odoric’s narrative, as well as other medieval travel accounts, such as Marco Polo’s Devisement dou Monde, results from collaboration between a traveller, the Friar Minor Odoric, and a scribe, Brother William of Solagna. Nevertheless, the narration is entirely conducted in the first person. First af all, the autodiegetic narration serves a “structural” and “contextualizing” function, since it defines the geographical and chronological coordinates of the traveller’s experience. Elsewhere the author represents himself as taking part in the action, in order to warrant the truthfulness of his stories. In some cases, the first-person narration enables the author to offer an interpretation of reality to the reader. Finally, in the last chapters of Odoric’s account, the “autodiegesis” acquires exemplary value: the first-person narrator presents his own experience as an edifying example for other Christians.
Keywords - Odoric of Pordenone, medieval travel literature, autodiegetic narration

Dana Pantea, The Image of England and the English in Ion Codru Drăguşanu’s Transylvanian Pilgrim, p. 85
Abstract - The Image of England and the English in Ion Codru Drăguşanu’s
Transylvanian Pilgrim This study starts by making an analysis of the historical changes in the 19th century society and culture both in Europe and in the three Romanian Provinces. Against this background we point out the impact of the English and England upon the development of the Romanians, the way in which the great “insular: nation, in spite of the geographical distance, determined certain trends in the social, cultural, educational, economic changes.
By defining, admiring or criticizing the Other, in our case the English, we can find both the needs and the characteristics of our people. This research has applied the methods of imagology on the letters written by Ion Codru-Drăgu?anu whi­le visiting England and the result is the portrait of the Englishman and Englishwoman, the picture of their society, culture, education, in one word, their way of living.
Keywords: culture, the Other, 19th century, impact

Alina Stoica, The Diplomat Martinho de Brederode and the Romanian-Portuguese Cultural Relations, p. 97
Abstract - The Diplomat Martinho de Brederode and the Romanian-Portuguese Cultural Relations The paper approaches an aspect belonging to a broad research topic we have focused on during the past years concerning the Romanian-Portuguese diplomatic relations. Using the definition and relation between politics, culture and propaganda, we will attempt to show the presence and influence of cultural propaganda on settling and developing the cultural relations between the two states considering that we mainly refer to the interwar period.
Our paper has as central character Martinho de Brederode and the way in which he understood to reach the objectives of strengthening the economic relations between Portugal and Romania by using the cultural aspect of his mission in Bucharest.
Keywords: Cultural propaganda, Martinho de Brederode, Romania, Portugal, diplomatic relations

Sorin Şipoş, The Security, Silviu Dragomir and the Notes in His Surveillance File (1957-1962), p. 109
Abstract - The Security, Silviu Dragomir and the Notes in His Surveillance File
(1957-1962) - Silviu Dragomir stood out due to two qualities as historian and politician. The professor was arrested in Cluj on the 1st of July, 1949. He was then transferred to the penitentiary in Caransebes to serve a six-month sentence for offence against Bank Law to which a correctional fine of 2,600,000 lei was added. On 6 May 1950, Silviu Dragomir was transferred to the prison in Sighet, thus joining the arrested politicians and intellectuals that were inmates there. After having been released, the historian Silviu Dragomir tried to pursue his scientific activity by publishing his work. Yet the Securitate (Security) distrusted former political convicts. At a first stage, the Security tried to recruit Silviu Dragomir. He then drew the attention of the re­pression authorities as they considered him a suspect of espionage for the English. Consequently, the Security officers proposed to make a file to pursue him in order to settle whether he was guilty of espionage favouring the English. The Security managed to gather all the information they needed due to the informants in Dragomir’s entourage.
The notes lead to the following conclusions: generally, the biography is accurate and the informants managed to seize the main moments in Silviu Dragomir’s activity. Moreover, they knew him very well. The information provided by the agents was accurate regarding his academic studies on all epochs and his activity at the university. They also mentioned the main moments in contemporary history, such as the Union in 1918, the Vienna Dictate, the refuge in Sibiu, and his return. The informants also brought to the foreground the remarkable scientific activity of Silviu Dragomir during the interwar period. His political activity was generally correctly presented, although it was insignificant as compared to his scientific one.
Keywords: Silviu Dragomir, Romanian Security, surveillance file, notes, intelligence

Gabriel Moisa, Text and Subtext in Communist Romania: “Thematic Framework for County Museums of History” (1985), p. 135
Abstract - Text and Subtext in Communist Romania: “Thematic Framework for County Museums of History” (1985) Under the communist rule, Romanian museography was more and more used for propagandistic purposes as years passed. Curators were involved, involuntarily in most cases, in the specific actions of the totalitarian regime propaganda. This made the institutions live in an increasingly limited and extremely well controlled cultural horizon. Too few uncontrolled manoeuvre elements could be performed by Romanian museums. In a totalitarian political system, such as the Romanian one, museums were able to survive, develop and manifest themselves only under politically dictated terms.
Keywords: Romanian museography, curators, history, propaganda, totalitarism

Alina Pavelescu, Le PCR et le culte de Nicolae Ceauşescu – un cas de substitution, p. 149
Abstract - The RCP and the cult of Nicolae Ceausescu – a substitution case The present study is an attempt to understand the relationship between the leader cult and the political legitimacy of the Romanian Communist party inside the Ceauşescu regime. We are arguing that, far from being a Romanian exception, the Ceauşescu cult is a specific treat of a soviet-type political regime. Our hypothesis is that the peculiarity of this leader cult consists in its effect on the RCP position besides the Romanian society. It has as main effect the symbolic replacement of the Party – and partially of its ideological assets – by the symbols and the specific rituals built to support the leader’s cult. As a result, in the Romanian public mind of the ’80, the communism is entirely assimilated with the person of Nicolae Ceauşescu and, consequently, the RCP loses its political substance together with its possibilities to benefit from the nationalistic legitimacy put in place at the and of 1960s- beginning of 1970s.
Keywords: Romania, Nicolae Ceauşescu, RCP, nationalism, leader’s cult

Ioan Horga, George Angliţoiu, National Memoryand European Integration, p. 163
Abstract - National Memoryand European Integration The paper aims at pursuing the way in which national memory and European identity behave considering the current financial-economic crisis. As seen, national memory has turned into a fashion, whether by being turned into a tool by political actors, or by turning it into an expectation and protection tool for public opinion. Yet from the point of view of the European integration, national memory may become a highly important argument to deepen the process of integrating and strengthening European identity. This can only come true due to the European leaders’ force of persuasion and insight of approach, as well as on national leaders’ mastering the urge of triumphantly turning to a cheap Euroscepticism. On the other hand, national memory may become an obstacle if steps to European unification are replaced by fragmentation.
Keywords: national memory, European identity, mentality, culture

• Literature and Memory, p. 175

Barbu ştefănescu, Holograph Notes on Church Books – the Power of Information on Rural World Sensitivity, p. 177
Abstract - Holograph Notes on Church Books – the Power of Information on Rural World Sensitivity Particularly, peasant world discourse on itself is precarious, as the historian has difficulty in finding documents that might strike through the boundaries of the quasi-general orality through confessions on the peasant. One source meeting these requirements is represented by the small side notes (“annotations”) in church books in the 16th to 20th centuries that are fascinating through the humanity of the feelings, the very convincing yet simple and straightforward sensitivity expressed by the authors or their fellow peasants, for whom and about whom they write. The apparently dull, bleak peasant life usually drawing a shallow, distant and superior approach of the Transylvanian village at the beginning of modern times is denied by this type of less conventional documents made up of facts, attitudes, gestures and words revealing a world structured around symbolic values. The power of information concerning this type of source is high in point of the relation between written and oral word, or the basic forms of rural sociability, of the ceaseless game between de-structuring trends and community aggregation, of means of expressing popular religiosity. These notes also introduce the less known issue of ritual and its determining role in traditional societies as social regulator.
Keyswords: holograph notes, peasant world, sensitivity, church books, community aggregation

Mircea Brie, Parish registers of civil status in Transylvania in the second half of the nineteenth century. Documentary signification, p. 187
Abstract - Parish registers of civil status in Transylvania in the second half of the XIX century. Documentary signification The parish registers of civil status, although the main sources of documentation for historical demography, are used with significant results by the other sciences such as history, ethnography, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, etc.. The perspectives of approaching the rural community and family have expanded considerably using these sources of ecclesiastical origin documentaries. The first researchers who refer to a systematic methodology that uses the parish registers of civil status as documentary sources for the completion of demographic data suggest the use of other sources, hitherto unused for this purpose. They will apply a new method, a modern innovation, the stripping and analysis of parish registers of civil status within the meaning of the reconstruction of demographic events (birth, marriage, death). The family reconstitution method, by analyzing the parish registers of civil status proposed by L. Henry and M. Fleury, has revolutionized the field of study dealing with people. Louis Henry believes that the parish registers of civil status is the ultimate source of information for the pre-state period and this is precisely the reason for which he proposes restoring the family’s biological life. Church registers are only able to give us an insight into the family in rural areas, at least for the second half of the XIX century. Church documents, the fundamental sources for researching family life, are of two categories: 1. civil status registers and annual reports of the parishes, 2. Church authorities funds, documents and minutes recorded by the bishops. These documents are complex sources for the researcher interested in historical demography, social history, and the economic history of toponymy, birthdays, etc.
Processing the data contained in these records requires a specific methodology. They allow us to observe trends that have occurred on the long-term demographic events such as: birth, marriage or death. These records are presented for a long time as their only source of documentation regarding civil status and demographic events in the life of most people. Researching these records can unveil important features of natural population movement, the phenomenon of birth, of marriage, the divorce or death. Then, an analysis of form and content of these registers can capture the cultural universe of the priests who fill these records.
These Church documents proved to be important, especially where other documentary sources (mainly those in the category of records made by the state) have proved insufficient, incomplete and unclear. The parish registers of civil status in this case are suitable for both a qualitative analysis, and a quantitative one at the level of local communities. Beyond their usefulness and significance of documentary source, these documents should be regarded as being subjective because they were managed by priests (every priest is then an exponent to promote demographic and confessional “realities” and such realities were viewed from the perspective of his own religious convictions). The parish registers, however, prove to be the only documents that allow us to penetrate the privacy of individuals in each community. A documentary is also undeniably a good dowry that researchers should promote and use in their research not only locally but also to verify and demonstrate certain behaviours and overall trends.
Keywords: Parish registers, Transylvanya, family, ethnicity, confession, community

Dan Octavian Cepraga, Edipo in Transilvania: tracce del folklore romeno nel Novecento italiano, p. 209
Abstract - Oedipus in Transylvania: Traces of Romanian Folklore in Twentieth-Century Italian Culture This paper aims to reconstruct the traces that romanian folklore left within the works of three prominent italian writers and intellectuals of the second-half of the twentieth-century: Franco Fortini, Ernesto de Martino and Pier Paolo Pasolini. In his first book of poetry, Foglio di via (1946), Fortini translated, from a french version made by Ilarie Voronca, some romanian funeral songs, trying to conceal the folkloric sources, in order to misappropriate them. The same archaic ceremonial songs are used, as historical and ethnographic evidences, by Ernesto de Martino in his great anthropological survey on european funeral laments, Morte e pianto rituale (1958), and then by Pier Paolo Pasolini as a soundtrack for his movie Oedipus Rex (1967). In all of this cases, the fascination for the romanian popular poetry is tangled with reticences and ambiguities, that reveal the complex relationships existing between intellectuals and popular traditions in twentieth-century culture.
Keywords: Franco Fortini, Ernesto de Martino, Pier Paolo Pasolini, folklore roumain

Lorenzo Renzi, L’epopea tragica dei Sassoni di Transilvania nei romanzi di Dieter Schlesak, p. 227
Abstract - The Tragic Epic of the Transylvanian Saxons in Dieter Schelsak’s Novels This paper presents a close reading of two recent novels by the German-Romanian writer Dieter Schlesak: Capesius der Auschwitzapotheker (2006) and Transylwahnien (2011). Born in 1934 among the German community of Transylvania, Schlesak deals in his novels with the tragic epic of the Holocaust, seen from the particular point of view of the transylvanian Saxons and their involvement in the Nazi crimes. More precisely, he depicts the “little homeland” of the Saxons and his dramatic dissolution, while History painfully reveals the existence of the Evil within the reassuring transylvanian Heimat.
Keywords: Dieter Schlesak, Saxons de Transylvanie, roman

Ştefan Damian, Frammenti di un carteggio inedito: Alexandru Marcu – Giandomenico Serra, p. 237
Abstract - Fragments of an Unpublished Correspondence: Alexandru Marcu – Domenico SerraA few letters from a personal archive, the author seeks the relationship of respect, friendship and intellectual solidarity between two leading scientists of the firsthalf of the twentieth century. From this is presented the interest for philology-glottology and also for the events that marked their life.
Keywords: glotologie, filologie, arhiva.

Alvaro Barbieri, Marian Papahagi e la romanistica: la tesi di laurea con Aurelio Roncaglia, p. 247
Abstract - Marian Papahagi and the Romance Studies: his Degree Thesis with Aurelio Roncaglia Marian Papahagi (1948-1999) was a prominent figure in Romanian academia, a most refined translator, a pugnacious critic, the author of trailblazing theoretical essays, and a formidable cultural organiser. Most know him for his work as an italianist. Few know that the crucial stages of the journey that shaped him as a scholar are characterised by an important phase of specialised training in the area of Neo-Latin literatures. Papahagi arrived in Rome as a twenty-year-old, and he spent there four very productive years (1968-1972), graduating in Romance Philology at “La Sapienza” University under the guidance of a great master such as Aurelio Roncaglia. His dissertation, Aspetti blasfemi nella poesia romanza delle origini (“Blasphemous aspects of early romance poetry”), is a vast monograph (456 machine-typed pages) that has never been published in its whole or partially re-utilised in subsequent works by the scholar. This paper aims to reconstruct the environment and the spirit of Papahagi’s period in Rome, as well as to provide a critical and analytical account of his unpublished dissertation.
Keywords: Marian Papahagi, Aurelio Roncaglia, romance studies, intellectual history

Zeno L. Verlato, Carcere, letteratura, verità, p. 259
Abstract - Prison, literature, truth Prison and literature. In order to the huge literary production in centuries (high, good and mediocre literature; memoirs, fictions, essays, etc), can prison be considered just a where or better a reason why? Since literature in and from prison is not a genre itself, is it possible to trace out coordinates (formal and conceptual ones) at least for some part of such literature? The present paper details these coordinates, for autobiographical prison literature, with the express willingness to ‘ tell the truth’, that can be at most considered as an opposition between ‘telling stories’ (literature) and ‘the urge to tell’ (speech of truth).
Keywords: prison literature, autobiography, hermeneutics

• List of Authors, p. 283

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