Transylvanian Review nr. 3/2011

Transylvanian Review, Vol. XX (Autumn), No 3, 2011


• Paradigms

Adrian Tudurachi, Stéréotypie identitaire dans l’avant-garde roumaine: Une étude de cas: l’“âme slave”, p. 3

Abstract – Identitary Stereotype in Romanian Avant-Garde: Case-study: “The Slavic Soul” – Within the identitary imaginative of the inter-war era, the figurative representation of the Slavic “soul” defines a position of contestation, vindicated simultaneously by actants whose platforms and projects are more often than not in conflict. The outstanding fact is the capacity of a traditionalistic topos—which establishes itself out of the narrations about the ethnic genesis and has an intensive identitary vocation—to withstand, at the same time, both a nationalistic regime and also an abusive regime, as a myth of emancipation, revolution and innovation. The hypothesis which I suggest is that according to which, at the foundation of all the transfers and confusions induced by the Slavic myth there lies a disorienting disposal of properties and a hazardous game of metaphorical figurative representations. The driftings of the Slavic myth, the hesitations and liberties taken by ideologists can be explained by the conflicting morphology of a commonplace. Therefore the research opens towards a general interogation about the necessary conditions for establishing “mobile” stereotypes, which may function simultaneously within opposite spaces of the cultural range, to illustrate both the themes of a traditionalistic ideology and the innovative interests of the avant-garde.
Keywords – Slavic myth, traditionalistic ideology, avant-garde ideology, aesthetic inventiveness

Angelo Mitchievici , The Parlor As a Temple of Art: Decadent Mise-En-Scenes, p. 13

Abstract – The Parlor As a Temple of Art: Decadent Mise-En-Scenes – The interest in decadentism at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, which this work emphasizes, also conveys a significant encounter between the inner self of the artist and the shell which covers it. The artist is not only what he writes, paints, carves or composes, but also his reflection in the mirror of his own house. The way he/she chose to built it, to decorate it, to live in it corresponds to a sophisticated scenario whose director acts as a priest officiating mass, a priest whose religion is art. Three different personalities, the symbolist poet and one of the first to theorize the modern literature, the leader of the symbolist movement at the end of the 19th century, Alexandru Macedonski, the writer, Mecena and famous art collector, Alexandru Bogdan-Piteşti, and the painter Cecilia Cuþescu-Storck illustrate the profound link between art and dwelling as an aesthetic manifesto. An aesthetic perspective on dwelling and living also becomes the theoretic frame for a restatement of the relationship between nature and culture, between individual and social etc.
Keywords – decadentism, symbolist art, modern literature, Alexandru Macedonski, Alexandru Bogdan-Piteşti, Cecilia Cuþescu-Storck, aesthetic manifestos

Ligia Tudurachi, Vivre-Ensemble/Écrire-Ensemble, p. 29

Abstract – Vivre-Ensemble/Écrire-Ensemble – The article proposes, by means of a case study of the literary circle around the journal Sburãtorul (1919–1943), to analyze the collective creative practices and their effects on multiple levels, i.e. stylistic, formal, ideological and existential. Departing from two premises, one stylistic (the aspiration of any stylistic concretisation to be turned into a cliché and a form that is widely distributed throughout the language community), the other related to the history of literature (the possibility of collective creativity where two or more authors conjoin their initiatives), the research seeks to develop an understanding of this collective creative practice and its context, the related aesthetic perception and elaboration of literary ideas.
Keywords – Sburãtorul (literary group), Vivre-Ensemble, idiorrythmie, collective creative practices

• Profile

Rodica Frenţiu, Neo-Humanism Based on the Awareness of the Universal, p. 42

Abstract – Neo-Humanism Based on the Awareness of the Universal – A Romanian, European and cosmopolitan scholar, Adrian Marino, opting for a new comparative science promoted in the second half of the 20th century by René Étiemble, contributed to the revitalization of the “comparative spirit” by placing the investigation of world literature on new theoretical and methodological grounds. The present study tries to point out the Romanian literary critic’s contribution (articulated systematically according to a peculiar inner logic) to the reshaping of comparative research, as well as the original options he suggested for completely revising the traditional concepts and canons of academic comparativism which appeared inadequate for his age. Replacing the overly restrictive concept of “comparative literature,” Adrian Marino proposed the idea of a world literature based on a radically changed perspective. He thus shifted the view from a speculative and deductive discipline to an inductive and experimental field, for the understanding and interpretation of which he recommended, provokingly, a new “paradigm,” based on a hermeneutical methodology.
Keywords – world literature, hermeneutics, militant comparativism, neo-humanism

Florina Ilis, Adrian Marino and the Critique of Literary Ideas, p. 52

Abstract – Adrian Marino and the Critique of Literary Ideas – The starting idea of Marino’s critical synthesis is the return to the “literary work.” Any critical analysis, claimed the Romanian scholar, must start with the definition and understanding of the literary work as an autonomous unit. In the present article we proposed to investigate the critical system elaborated by Adrian Marino in order to understand the essence of literary works. Two essential characteristics can be described during the analysis of this theoretical interpretative system of literary works: coherence in the principles of the theoretical basis and the methodological expression in which the entire critical attempt is completed. Through his studies, Marino helped consolidate the prestige of a discipline considered, given the lack of a system, empirical and impressionistic: literary criticism. Conferring it theoretical amplitude and methodological support, Adrian Marino transformed this discipline into the critique of literary ideas.
Keywords – critique of literary ideas, critical methodology, hermeneutics

Oana Fotache, The Issue of the European Integration of Romanian Literature in A. Marino’s Works, p. 61

Abstract – The Issue of the European Integration of Romanian Literature in A. Marino’s Works – Under the recent circumstances of European cultural integration, a process involving intense trans-national dialogue, every European culture is nowadays going through a process of redefining identities and re-evaluating traditions. Yet the problem of modernization, interpreted as synchronization with the Western values and trends, is not a recent one at all, being constantly discussed in Romanian literary criticism and theory. My paper considers the issue of the European integration of Romanian literature as it was approached by a well-known contemporary Romanian critic of ideas, Adrian Marino (1921–2005). The objectives of this paper are to briefly outline the history of the concept of European integration, from Marino’s perspective, and to investigate the means by which this integration took place at different times (cultural import as such, adaptation, influence, coincidence/affinity, etc.).
Keywords – history of ideas, cultural ideology, synchronization, European integration, travel diary

Ionuţ Costea, Adrian Marino and His Research on the Romanian Enlightenment, p. 69

Abstract – Adrian Marino and His Research on the Romanian Enlightenment – The evaluation of Adrian Marino’s contributions to the study of the Enlightenment in Romanian culture opens the possibility of approaching his work from the vantage point of a frequent theme, namely, the history of censorship and the development of the idea of freedom, present in his writings even since the 1960s and up to his last published texts. Despite their diversity, Adrian Marino’s writings on the Enlightenment maintain their methodological unity and thematic approach. They consist of an analysis of the ideas, the history and the ideology found in the space inhabited by the Romanians at the end of the 18th century and at the beginning of 19th century. On the other hand, this pattern of unitary interpretation is seconded by a systematic investigation of the impact of the Enlightenment upon Romanian society, within a multi-layered analysis: Enlightenment and politics (liberty, progress, equality, peace, and revolution), Enlightenment and culture (literature, theater, printing, and press), Enlightenment and society (progress, scientific progress, the colonial issue).
Keywords – Enlightenment, history of ideas, liberty, censorship, Transylvania

Mihai Pascaru and Traian Vedinaş, Le sociologue Ion Aluaş: L’actualité de ses recherches entreprises à l’époque du communisme, p. 77

Abstract – Ion Aluaş, the Sociologist, and the Novelty of Some of His Research during the Communist Period – The study is intended to be a portrait of the sociologist Ion Aluaş (1927–1994), and it is focused on the novelty of some of the research that he conducted during the communist period. This research is only available in manuscript and is inherently rich in significance, as well as limited. Various elements of novelty are discussed, such as the displacement of population in the area of large mining investments, the need for spatial planning of the rural area or the need for a richer and well preserved diversity of activities specific to the rural world. The study shows that many of the ideas of the sociologist Ion Aluaş can be identified in one way or another in the National Programme for Rural Development 2007–2013, document aimed at renewing the rural areas of Romania with the help of European financing.
Keywords – Romanian sociology, urbanization, spatial planning, rural development, Western Carpathians

Vasile Puşcaş, Keith Hitchins: Honesty and the Writing of History, p. 88

Abstract – Keith Hitchins: Honesty and the Writing of History – The present study is devoted to the personality and work of historian Keith Hitchins, one of the leading foreign specialists in Romanian studies, tracing the development of his interest in this field from the early stages in his career, at Harvard University in the 1950s, until the present day. Considerable attention is given to the vast body of work produced by the reputed historian on a variety of topics pertaining to Romanian history, and to the particular relevance and actuality of his approaches. Last but not least, we also learn about the influence he exerted and about the assistance he provided to several generations of Romanian historians.
Keywords – Keith Hitchins, Romanian studies, historiography

Vasile Puşcaş, A Keith Hitchins Bibliography, p. 101

• Philosophy

Gheorghe Glodeanu, Cioran and the Poetics of Despair, p. 126

Abstract – Cioran and the Poetics of Despair – Together with Mircea Eliade, Constantin Noica, Mircea Vulcãnescu, Mihail Sebastian or Petru Comarnescu, Emil Cioran (1911–1995) belongs to an outstanding generation, one that had the philosopher Nae Ionescu as its spiritual mentor. As with Mircea Eliade, the works of Cioran that were printed in his native country contain in nuce the major themes approached by this remarkable thinker. The book On the Heights of Despair (1934) brought forward a modern spirit, fascinated by the negative values of existence. Cioran is not a philosopher in the traditional sense of the word, as he is not the author of a distinct system of thought. The issue of torment becomes much more important than that of syllogism, than the concern for unity and systems. The theme of the first volume brings together the most important interests of the philosopher and anticipates the main directions his subsequent writings would follow. In this light, many chapter titles prove to be symbolic, outlining a true poetics of despair.
Keywords – negation, death, existence, nonexistence, suffering, unhappiness, despair, absurd, agony, sickness

Sandu Frunzã, The Relational Individual in a Communication Built Society: Towards a New Philosophy of Communication, p. 140

Abstract – The Relational Individual in a Communication Built Society: Towards a New Philosophy of Communication – This article emphasizes the elements of a philosophy of communication based on the idea that communication constructs reality in postmodern society. To illustrate this perspective, we resorted to a discussion about the ideas of Aurel Codoban, one of the most representative philosophers of Romania. In his view, the philosopher is called upon to make a new synthesis between philosophy and media communication, and to assume one’s condition as a media communication individual. The media has a decisive influence in relation to the construction of reality in postmodern consciousness. Communication is about relationships, about building inter-human relationships, about changing the attitudes, decisions or conduct of others. It also involves a way of perceiving reality and of acting according to the requirements of this perspective. Each of these aspects takes the form of conceptual encounters designed as relational structures defined by keywords such as otherness, dialogue, and communication. Thus, the philosophy of communication must become a practice of communication assumed by the relational individual.
Keywords – philosophy of communication, communication practices, signification truth, mass media, reality, Aurel Codoban

• Book Reviews

Cioran au centenaire (reviewed by Marta Petreu), p. 153

Ioan-Aurel Pop and Sorin Şipoş, eds., Silviu Dragomir —120 de ani de la naştere (reviewed by Florian Dumitru Soporan), p. 156

• Contributors, p. 160

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