Transylvanian Review nr. 1/2011

• Paradigms

Andreas Golob, Die Steiermark im Informationsfluss: Nebenarm – Mündung – Quelle?, p. 3
Abstract – Styria in the Stream of Information: Subordinate Branch—Mouth—Source? – Regarding not only the eighteenth-century “new media,” but also “traditional” ways of face-to-face communication, the article asks how up-to-date knowledge or information on current events, respectively, could reach Styria’s inhabitants. Newspapers and periodicals, books as well as letters represented innovative means and became increasingly important, in particular during the reign of Joseph II. However, the theatre, communication on the marketplace, informal contacts with strangers on the roads or in inns, representative secular as well as religious festivities and sermons continued to play important roles the concluding deliberations critically assess in how far Styria could be interpreted as a source and a recipient of information, respectively, at the same time. Furthermore the rather high media penetration of the “province” is considered.
Keywords – Styria, Habsburg Monarchy, media, communication, information, intercultural contact

Ovidiu Ghitta, Modalités de communication en Transylvanie au XVIIIe siècle, p. 24
Abstract – Means of Communication in 18th Century Transylvania – This essay aims at highlighting one of the most important aspects of the history of the Romanians from Transylvania during the 18th century. The main emphasis is placed on the understanding of the channels through which the Romanians became acquainted with contemporary cultural ideas and trends, in the timeframe between 1701 and 1790. Particular attention would be given to the relationship with the outside world, to the networks which made Romanians from the principality become familiar with cultural and educational centers located either in various places of the Habsburg Monarchy or even outside its territory. Since the main goal of this analytical attempt is cultural communication, not only the kind of ideas and their propagators are brought to the light, but also the way these ideas were adopted and used. The process of cultural communication with the outer world and the cultural production highly benefited from the involvement of the clerical elite. Of the two Romanian churches functioning in Transylvania—the Uniate (Greek-Catholic church) and the Orthodox one—the former distinguished itself by the assumed role of mediating contacts with cultural value systems, institutional models and set of ideas common to Western Europe. The essay therefore highlights the impact of new ideas at institutional level (ecclesiastical organization, educational network, printing houses, libraries) and in the field of cultural production (homiletic literature, works on religious debates, historiography, and philology).
Keywords – Enlightenment, cultural communication, public sphere, education, historiography, ideology

Alois Kernbauer, Die Steiermark – Bildung und Wissenschaft im 18. Jahrhundert, p. 35
Abstract – Styria: Education and Science in the 18th Century – At the onset of the 18th century scholarship, science and higher education were dominated by the Order of the Jesuits. According to their principles, the Jesuits offered higher education without tuition thus drawing about half of their students from the lowest social classes. Around 1700 there was increasing demand for the education of lay people who did not want to become priests or monks but needed a higher education for their occupations in several fields of the society, like constructing and architecture, mining, the military and the newly established plants to name just a few. These young people needed knowledge which was not provided by the high schools and universities run by the Jesuits. From the middle of the 18th century onwards the state took over the schools from the orders, the parishes and communities and enacted new curricula according to the principles of enlightened absolutism and the needs of the population. In the course of the 18th century the educational system of Styria became increasingly similar to those of other hereditary lands because of the policy of the government in Vienna aiming at establishing a unique organization in the whole monarchy. Nevertheless some differences of minor importance remained until the 19th century.
Keywords – Styria, 18th century, Order of the Jesuits, state, education, science

Nicolae Bocşan, L’éducation et les sciences dans la région de Banat à l’époque des Lumières.
Le cas des Roumains, p. 63
Abstract – Education and Sciences in the Region of Banat during the Enlightenment: The Case of the Romanians – Imperial Banat was a region congenial to reform experiments run by the enlightened monarchs of the Habsburg Empire. Particularly successful the reforms in education played a crucial role in the eradication of illiteracy and the development of the instruction process, shaping the future Romanian elite as a socially distinct body. Access to higher education paved the way for the formation of a local intelligentsia and for its involvement in social life, resulting in impressive cultural and scientific achievements attuned to the European spirit. The study presents an in-depth approach to these accomplishments in the field of education and linguistics.
Keywords – Enlightenment, education reform, enlightened monarchs, education, linguistic outlook

Marlies Raffler, Zwischen Hof und Kirche. Sammlungen im 18. Jahrhundert in der Steiermark, p. 77
– Between Court and Church: Collections in 18th Century Styria – The topic of the present study has been the subject of intense discussion under headings such as “cultures of knowledge,” “culture of collecting.” The far-reaching consequences for the development of museums, such as the problem of centralisation, are demonstrated by the decline of the Styrian museum landscape as well by the collections of the court in Graz, the Styrian nobility, the university, of churches and cloisters.
Keywords – practice of collecting, historical museology, Styria, Graz, nobility, Church, University, Court

Doru Radosav, Culture de la collection. Sur les initiatives muséales en Transylvanie au XVIIIe siècle, p. 91
– The Culture of Collection: On Museum Initiatives in 18th Century Transylvania – The present research study that pertains to the more general topic of the culture of collection is an attempt to analyze some early initiatives to create museum collections in 18th century Transylvania. Such initiatives originated in the European paradigm of cultural and intellectual options that were centered on the Latin phrase “antiquitas et curiositas.” In the 18th century, the museums became depositories of both scientific knowledge (history, archeology, nature studies) and of options for beauty, for artistic (imaginary) transfigurations of the world, man and nature (paintings, sculptures, engravings). The museums are expressions of an encyclopedic spirit in the field of knowledge but at the same time they articulate, the sensitivity and fondness for the artistic and natural beauty. After setting forth these theoretical premises the study describes the typological diversity of the Transylvanian museums represented by: school, ecclesiastic and private museums, a fact that illustrates the convergences and compatibilities of a regional culture with the European culture. The Brukenthal Museum of Sibiu is a distinctive example within this typology as it became a prestigious institution with a large audience in the European public and cultural environment.
Keywords – collections, patrimony, ecclesiastic and private museums, science and natural curiosities, the museum as a public space

Peter Teibenbacher, Demographic Aspects of 18th Century Styria, p. 102
Abstract – Demographic Aspects of 18th Century Styria – The dukedom of Styria was divided into different demographic and economic regions, probably since the early modern times, and evidently since the 18th century. Agrarian ecotypes obviously had a strong impact on demographic behavior, demographic structures and population growth. Whereas in the mountainous north of the country cattle raising and foresting on larger farms with numerous and mostly celibate stable farmhands were common, in the south and especially in the deep south, the Slovenian part of the dukedom (called Lower Styria, today’s Slovenia), predominant were the small and very small agrarian units, with few acres of land, small livestock and small vineyards, and without stable farmhands. Population growth during the 18th century was remarkable especially in this part of the country, in this more “open” demographic system, showing the mutual interdependencies between demography, society and economy.
Keywords – Styria, 18th century, population, demography

Rudolf Gräf, Ioan Lumperdean, Vorzeichen wirtschaftlichen Denkens. Die Erneuerung der siebenbürgischen und Banater Landwirtschaft (1711-1847), p. 111
Abstract – Aspects of Economic Thought: The Modernization of Agriculture in Transylvania and Banat (1711–1847) – Drawing on the specialized literature, the study seeks to outline and explain, from the vantage point of the dominant economic theories of that time, the modernization of agriculture in Transylvania and Banat during the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th century, when the two provinces were part of the Habsburg Empire. The authors present the political context of that time, the importance of Enlightenment ideas and of Kameralism in triggering the process of change, the mutations caused by the legislative measures taken by the Habsburg authorities and their importance, the leading protagonists of the modernization process, its consequences for the population, and the changes caused by this phenomenon during the period in question.
Keywords – reformism, economic policy, Austrian Empire, agrarian economy, Joseph II

• Transsilvanica

Alexandru Simon, Le terrible partage de la Transylvanie. Le contexte politique d’une ambassade royale hongroise à Görlitz en été 1513, p. 129
Abstract – The Frightening Partition of Transylvania: The Political Context of a Royal Hungarian Embassy to Görlitz in the Summer of 1513 – Pope Julius II, Bogdan III of Moldavia’s former protector, died in February 1513. This should have postponed the crusader plans drafted in Rome and Vienna. Yet it did not. The new Pope, Leo X, wanted to make an impact in the name of the cross and also compensate Cardinal Thomas Bakócz, “Latin” Patriarch of Constantinople and archbishop of Esztergom, his still very powerful counter-candidate. Prior even to the conclusion of the papal elections, Maximilian I of Habsburg had already drafted his own crusader plan (an anti-Jagiellonian and in particular anti-Polish plan). With Russian, Teutonic, Moldavian and Tartar (if possible) aid, the Roman-German emperor wanted to strike at Istanbul and coerce Sigismund I’s Krakow. Maximilian I overlooked the fact that the Crimean Tartars were one of sultan Selim I’s most trusted supporters. Maximilian seemingly also overestimated his grip on Wallachian matters. Wallachia was under sultan Selim’s firm control, after Neagoe Basarab, the favorite of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and of the Orthodox monastic and secular elites around it, had won the sultan’s favor and also rapidly gained domestic support (1512–1513). The Ottomans could thus launch their raids against Hungary. These raids increased in intensity after Selim’s victory over Ahmed in the spring of 1513. The raiders were however not the only Ottoman forces crossing the Danube line in the first half of 1513. Patriarch Pachomios also came to Wallachia and Moldavia in an attempt to exploit the Greek ‘millennarist’ fears (1512, a year marked by natural catastrophes in Moldavia, was supposed to bring the end of the world). Bogdan III reconciled with the patriarchate. Stephen III’s son made penitence in front of Pachomios and of Moldavian metropolitan bishop Theoctist II for (his ‘anti-Greek’ and pro-Latin) deeds.
Keywords – Transylvania, Ottoman Empire, Hungary, Tartars, Neagoe Basarab, Selim

• Tangencies

Mădălina Tomescu, Les droits de l’enfant dans la société actuelle, p. 138
Abstract – Children’s Rights in Today’s Society – Although the Convention on the Rights of the Child (adopted on 20 Nov. 1989) is the most widely ratified international document, today many children are denied the most basic of rights: they are exploited as cheap labor, they become merchandise in the trade with transplant organs, they are the victims of child prostitution and trafficking. The Convention is a code of rights for children all over the world, defining what is practically their legal status and a set of universally accepted standards based on the idea that all children are equal and have the same value as any adult, but are nevertheless vulnerable, immature from a physical and a mental point of view and therefore dependent upon the adults, subjected to their decisions and behavior.
Keywords – child, children’s rights, Convention on the Rights of the Child

• Book Reviews

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Contro d’unità l’Italia (reviewed by Mariaelide Graziano), p. 147
Gudrun-Liane Ittu, Scurtã istorie a Muzeului Brukenthal (reviewed by Anda-Lucia Spânu), p. 148
Heike Karge, Steinerne Erinnerung – versteinerte Erinnerung? Kriegsgedenken in Jugoslawien (1947-1970) (reviewed by Daniela Schanes), p. 150
Brigitta Gabriela Hannover Moser, Siebenbürgen. Rund um Kronstadt, Schäßburg und Hermannstadt (reviewed by Kurt Scharr), p. 152
Vasile Boari and Sergiu Gherghina (eds.), Weighting Differences: Romanian Identity in the Wider European Context (reviewed by Marcela Sãlãgean), p. 154
Mihai Pascaru, Habitatul risipit de globalizare: Impactul psiho-social şi rezidenþial al proiectului Roşia Montanã (reviewed by Cãlina Ana Buþiu), p. 156

• Contributors, p. 160

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