Transylvanian Review, vol. XVIII, Supplement no. 1/2009


Editors’ Note • p. 5

• Economic Aspects


Dumitru Matiş, Demography—Economics. Congruence and direction, p. 11

AbstractDemography – economics. Congruence and direction – Most specialists agree that the development of the population in a certain space and period of time is strictly determined and is never accidental. Opinions differ when it comes to the factors that influence the increase or decrease of the population. The latest vision, which is more and more widely accepted, is that “the demographic mutations have their origin in a complex net of causes.” In the last two centuries, the most consistent discussions outlined the following: a) the decisive role of the economy, that is the increase of the population based on the reduction of mortality, as a result of an improved diet and of increased food production; b) the fundamental help given by the progress in medicine and by the improvement of living conditions and of personal hygiene, in order to reduce mortality, all of which result in the increase of life expectancy and, directly, in demographic growth. Between population and the economy there was and there will be a very important connection. We can say, without any doubt, that from the appearance of human being and today and in future, the existence of humanity was and it will be insured by and from economics, as well as the biological and social existence, implies the existence of economics and production, exchange and consumption of goods and services.

Keywords: relationship population-economics, methodological aspects

Marin Balog, The exports of Austrian capital in Transylvania in the 19th Century and its Effects on the Industrialization. The case of the Anonymous Society of Mines and Furnaces from Braºov (1856–1894), p. 19

Abstract– The exports of Austrian capital in Transylvania in the 19th Century and its Effects on the Industrialization. The case of the Anonymous Society of Mines and Furnaces from Brasov (1856–1894) – A product of economic liberalism, the industrial development of the 1850s and of the years that followed—until the economic crisis of 1873—was based first and foremost on the export of Austrian capital to Transylvania. The main fields that saw such capital investments were mining and metallurgy, which could find plenty of local raw materials and thrived because of the good price of iron and cast iron on the markets south and east of the Carpathians. Amid these favorable circumstances, two forms of investments and capital placements emerged: joint stock companies and individual investments by entrepreneurs of groups thereof. As in the western parts of the Empire, the industrial companies supported during this period by the major banks were usually joint stock companies, created in Transylvania following the merger between smaller mining and metallurgic companies. After the great mining and industrial conglomerate present in Banat and known as StEG, reorganized in 1854 as a joint stock company with an initial capital of 110 million florins, the second largest company in Transylvania was the Anonymous Society of Mines and Smelters of Brasov, with an initial capital of 4 million florins, increased to 11 million shortly after the establishment of the company and invested by the Viennese bank Creditanstalt. Following successive acquisitions and an expansion program that lasted for more than two decades, the Brasov company remained the largest mining and metallurgy company in Transylvania, with 3586 workers and 1200 temporary workers in 1880. Our study is meant to highlight the strategies devised by the investors in the Braºov company, their outcome, and also their impact upon the general process of industrialization experienced by Transylvania during that time. We have also sought to determine the role, the motivation, and the purpose of the Austrian capital investments in the region during the second half of the 19th century.

Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy, Transylvania, Brasov, second half of the 19th century, capital, industrialization

Rudolf Gräf, Ioan Lumperdean, Bevölkerungswandel auf den Banater Domänen der StEG, p. 39

Abstract – Population change on the StEG estates in Banat – In the year 1855 The Royal-Cesaro’s Society a state privileged company, at which bases stood in 1854 some of the greatest Austrian and French banks, bought from Erariu the domains, mines and plants from Banat (StEG) (in the same time they bought the domains and mines from Brandeisl and Sobochleben from Bohemia). It was a surface of more than 130000 ha with a population of more than 100.000 inhabitants. In those 65 years in which StEG had in mountains from Banat the property rights, population from different domains of the society knew a set of changes, in his ethnic structure, but mostly in the professional and social structure. So that in the cities from the mountains (metallurgical and mining centres) the number of German inhabitants, followers of the German colonists from the 18th century or even at the middle from the need of ensuring the labour force.
In the same period of time the active population number increased in industry (labourers, technicians and individuals in the public sector), even the rural population from neighbour villages from the vicinity of the industrial centres being integrated in the process of industrial labour, capitalist based on rewarded salary labour.
The study, based on the archive roots, brings into attention the demographic changes from southern Banat, from the domains StEG, both ethnical and social and professional. The study tries to express with figures and also real data’s the amplitude of the change process that took place as a result of the industrial revolution mentioned above transferred from central areas of the monarchy.

Keywords: Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Banat, modern era, industrialization, population changes

Robert Nagy, The Demographic Changes and the Industrial Workers of Cluj between 1890–1948, p. 51

Abstract – The Demographic Changes and the Industrial Workers of Cluj between 1890–1948 – At the turn of the century, the economic development of the city of Cluj and especially its early industrial development are closely connected to the vast economic processes that affected and shaped the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Given its geographic location and economic backwardness, the manifest development of the statistical region of Transylvania began after the year 1900. Thus, the great industry, which generated a new social group, gained strength in Cluj only starting with the first decade of the 20th century. The development of the great industrial companies mobilized whole social groups, giving them the opportunity to leave their ancestral lands. Thus, the city became a destination favored by those with limited education. The analysis of their places of origin and of their ethnic and confessional identity presents us with a fairly heterogeneous picture. Generally speaking, more than 90% of them came from historical Transylvania, the highest percentage being represented by those born in Cluj. However, their dominant place was gradually taken by those born in other counties or districts.

Keywords: Transylvania, Cluj, industrialization, workers

Lelia Papp, Evolution of Economic Activities and Their Impact upon the Population of Turda and Its Surrounding Rural Area (Second Half of the 18th Century—Beginning of the 20th Century), p. 59

Abstract – Evolution of Economic Activities and Their Impact upon the Population of Turda and Its Surrounding Rural Area (Second Half of the 18th Century—Beginning of the 20th Century) – The present paper focuses upon the demographic changes under the impact of economic transformations that took place in the town of Turda and its surrounding rural area, under the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian administration. For a better understanding of the phenomena, an integrated approach is necessary, the relations between the town and its surrounding rural area becoming increasingly interwoven during this period under the impact of a continuously increase in the town’s handicraft and manufacture production, an increased social division of work, the replacement of natural economy with that of change, the gradual, although slow, renewal of agricultural inventory, the political context, social conditions, etc. An analysis of the data provided by the 1850, 1857, 1880, 1900, and 1910 censuses and the interpretation of a series of demographic indicators (index of population growth, migration rate, feminisation index, population’s occupational structure, etc.) indicate the population’s tendency of concentrating in the town or of commuting daily to and from the town (due to the harsh living conditions existent in the rural area and to the increasing attraction induced by the new workplaces in the context of a developing industrialization), mutations as regards the diversification of the population’s occupational structure, but also a phenomenon of spreading some urban-like elements into the surrounding rural area (technical innovations, handicraft activities).

Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy, Transylvania, Turda, modern era, population, economy

Corneliu Pãdurean, Ethnical groups and industrialization in Banat and Criºana at the beginning of the 20th century, p. 71

Abstract – Ethnical groups and industrialization in Banat and Crisana at the beginning of the 20th century – At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century Banat and Crisana were two of the wealthiest and most important regions within the territory administrated by the government from Budapest, in the Austro – Hungarian monarchy. Placed in the Eastern and South-Eastern part of the mentioned territory, these regions have different landscapes, from plains to mountains, with rich soils. Historical Banat included three counties: Caras Severin, Timis and Torontal and Crisana included Arad and Bihor counties, the last one being one of the biggest counties from Hungary. County capital cities like Arad, Oradea, Timisoara were at the beginning of the 20th century among the best developed settlements, facing a strong urbanisation process. This phenomenon is linked to the economic development of these two regions that benefited both of natural resources and a numerous population. The population provided workers, necessary both for industry and agriculture. For example, at the census of 1910, the two counties from Crisana registered a civilian population of 1.054.539 souls, and Banat 1.571.395 souls. The overall number of civilian population in the two regions was 2.625.934. This number represented 13, 73% of Hungary’s population. The inhabitants of these regions were of different ethnical and confessional structure. This study focuses on highlighting the relation between population and economic development.

Keywords: Austro-Hungarian Empire, western part of Romania, industrialization, beginning of the 20th century

Pierluigi Profumieri, Demographic Changes and Industrialization in Italy: 1861–1918, p. 99

Abstract – Demographic Changes and Industrialization in Italy: 1861 –1918 – Italy population at the time of unification (1861) was marked by high death rate of newly born, low life expectancy, infectious diseases and poor nutrition for the majority of peasants and laborers. Urban population was stagnant or even lower than in the XVIIIth century and agriculture was the occupation for the majority of labor force. Only in late ‘800 the establishment of a few major industrial plants opened the way to a process of industrialization which brought about a new demographic trend. However, not until world war it can be noticed a more significant change in life expectancy and composition of labor force, with industrial occupation still lagging behind that in agriculture. Industry was made of a few large industrial factories and a great number of small-medium units which could hardly be easier classified as artisans. Even that limited technological advance and widespread elementary education were not sufficient to eliminate the overwhelming illiteracy of the population. Only by the middle of XXth century the entire population was able to read and write. Pellagra, malaria and tuberculosis were still a distinctive feature of the agrarian population to whom industry could not offer a better diet nor a decent lodging. Emigration was the safe valve for millions of peasants and bricklayers. They didn’t deprive the mother country of labor power but supported its balance of payment with their remittances of dollars or peso. Finally, a comparative analysis with major European nations shows how Italy was late to catch up with the sustained economic development of its neighbours.

Keywords: Italy, modern era, industrialization, population structure

Constantin Ungureanu, Die Bedeutung des Franziszeischen Katasters für die sozio-ökonomische Entwicklung der Bukowina, p. 113

Abstract – The Significance of Emperor Francis’ Land Regulation for the Social-Economic Evolution of Bukowina – In the 19th century, in nearly all provinces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, cadastral measurements were carried out in order to improve the taxation system, provide better data on the exact structure of agricultural lands, and indicate the owners of the landed property. The Franciscan Cadastre was compiled in 1817–1861. Measurements were conducted in 30,556 localities, covering a surface of 300,082 km sq and with 49,138,140 lots. All in all, 164,375 cadastral plates were drawn, most of them on the scale of 1:2880. In Bukovina, the cadastral measurements began in 1819 and continued until the spring of 1823, several cadastral plates being drawn, especially for the localities in northern Bukovina. After Emperor Franz I visited Bukovina in 1823, the work was stopped and it resumed only 30 years later, in early 1854. At that time, Bukovina was divided into 16 taxation districts and it included 319 cadastral settlements. Between 1854–1856, cadastral measurements were conducted in Bukovina on a surface of 10,450 km sq, and 4821 cadastral plates were drawn. Also, the cadastral records came to feature 798,707 lots. The cadastral plates and records are the most important documentary sources of the Franciscan Cadastre. The cadastral plates accurately indicated the situation of the agricultural lands, the boundaries of the lots, of villages and towns, the location of houses, while the cadastral records held, for every cadastral locality, a protocol of the land and construction lots. The cadastral plates and records for Bukovina were compiled mostly by German or Polish experts, who had already proven themselves in Galicia. The vast majority of them had no knowledge of Romanian, and therefore the names of towns and villages, rivers, brooks, glades, churches, etc. was transcribed phonetically using the norms of German or Polish spelling. After the cadastral measurements of 1854–1856, work continued in Bukovina on the completion and implementation of the Franciscan Cadastre. Already in the 1860s, new protocols were devised which included the changes occurred chiefly in the ownership of land and construction lots. The analysis of these documents reveals the pace of construction work in various localities in Bukovina. Currently, a group of researchers from the universities of Klagenfurt and Innsbruck (Austria), the author among them, is carrying out a detailed investigation of the Franciscan Cadastre put together and implemented in the 19th century in the Austrian provinces of Carinthia and Bukovina. These documents will allow for a more objective understanding of the social and economic development of Bukovina in the 19th century, for a more accurate reconstruction of the rural environment of that time, for a better understanding of the economic and social modernization of the province, in general terms or in the particular case of one area or locality. The Franciscan Cadastre is the oldest and most comprehensive documentary source on the settlements of Bukovina, and its investigation would provide a better understanding of Bukovina’s history within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Keywords: Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bukovina, Cadastral Records, 19th century, social and economic development

• Family Aspects, p. 131

Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux, Family formation, marital cohabitation and house system in a changing socio-economic context. Some introductory perspectives, p. 133

Abstract – Family formation, marital cohabitation and house system in a changing socio-economic context. Some introductory perspectives –Changes which occurred during the 19th century within the Habsburg Monarchy in the condition of women are discussed, particularly their degree of freedom when choosing a marriage partner. In Europe, local studies of popular customs show that sometimes couples had children before getting married. This was not always considered as “immoral” by common people and may explain variations in statistics of illegitimacy trends. Given various traditional strategies of family reproduction, we should stress the gap between the law, popular opinion and practice. Than we shall consider first at what age marriage was allowed for sons and daughters and their degree of freedom in choosing a spouse. In a second section, we shall question the relationship between family strategies and the proportion of births out of wedlock. Finally, the connection between family transmission behavior, migration and domestic service will be commented.

Keywords: Europe, Habsburg Monarchy, modern era, family formation, marital cohabitation, house system

Ioan Bolovan, Sorina Paula Bolovan, From Tradition to Modernisation. The Romanian Family in Transylvania in the Modern Era (1850-1918), p. 147

Abstract – From Tradition to Modernisation. The Romanian Family in Transylvania in the Modern Era (1850-1918) – The investigation of families and of matrimonial behavior with the Transylvanian Romanians between the middle of the 19th century and World War I, in the context of the general population of the province (in 1850 the Romanians represented roughly 55% of the population of Transylvania) fully reveals the modernizing tendencies affecting Transylvanian society at that time. Our paper presents the agents of change, the factors that altered demographic behavior and family relations with the Romanians, as well as the visible, measurable effects of these developments. The end of feudalism in Transylvania after the Revolution of 1848 brought with it a change in judicial and socio-economic relations, presently based on an economy of exchanges and of capital transfers, on the circulation of labor, etc., but also a different marital behavior and new moral norms within the community. The increased mobility of the population (the increased number of seasonal wage-seekers traveling inside and outside the province, emigration, the early urbanization and industrialization, etc.) also affected Transylvania, in terms of human relations, of the areas and criteria for marital selection, of the family lifecycle, and especially of the ecclesiastical authority over private matters. If, until that point, the Church had been legally given almost full control over all matters pertaining to birth, marriage, and death, gradually, in the second half of the 19th century, as the society became more secular and the state increasingly modern, the competences of the Church were gradually transferred to the state. In 1894–1895, the Hungarian state passed a number of laws that secularized all marital affairs, marital life, and divorces. The secularization, which made considerable progress towards the turn of the 20th century, stimulated the modernization process, but essential in this respect were the social and economic developments following the end of feudalism and the establishment of an industrial capitalist society, with its massive impact upon both individuals and communities. Gradually, before World War I, more and more people in Transylvania ceased to obey a higher authority (religion, community, family, etc.) and began to pursue their own interests and desires. Paradoxically enough, the state authorities supported them, limiting the religious constraints, as dictated by the interests of the state itself. The outcome was individual emancipation and a liberalization of family and matrimonial relations, not only with the Romanians, but also within the entire population.

Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy, Transylvania, modern times, Romanian family

Siegfried Gruber, Demographic Change and the Family, p. 159

Abstract – Demographic Change and the Family – The 19th century was a century of enormous changes for the Habsburg Monarchy, and these changes intensified in its second half. There were not only changes in the fields of politics, economy, engineering, science and art, but also within the population. This demographic change in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century has been termed “demographic transition.” It consists of a decline in fertility and mortality from a high level to a much lower level. The earlier onset of mortality decline leads to a higher population increase than before for some decades and massive migrations occurred also during this time. The population of the Habsburg Monarchy lived in families, which differed strongly in structure, size and function. These differences come from distinct cultural patterns, economic conditions, housing situations, the urban-rural contrast and the social classes. The cultural patterns were regionally oriented, while the urban patterns flourished in the rapidly growing cities. The economic conditions, the housing situation and the social class influenced the families in the whole territory of the Habsburg Monarchy. These families were also altered by the demographic changes occurring and these effects should be analysed in this paper. We should also not forget, that most people experienced different family constellations over their life course.

Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy, 19th century, industrialization, family changes

Simion Retegan, Strategies of Marriage in the Romanian Rural Society from Transylvania in the Middle of the 19th Century, p. 185

Abstract – Strategies of Marriage in the Romanian Rural Society from Transylvania in the Middle of the 19th Century – On the basis of two major categories of demographic sources—divorce trials and marriage dispensations—the paper presents the manner in which marital bonds were established in the rural society of Transylvania at the middle of the 19th century, and how they were planned by the parents—who, in most cases, decided the future of their children—and by the future spouses themselves. In keeping with the traditional peasant mentality, the aim was to achieve the social and personal fulfillment of individuals within the social group in which they had been born or, in the ethnically mixed villages so numerous in Transylvania, within their ethnic group. Consequently, nobles married nobles, rich married rich, poor people married other poor people, Romanians married Romanians, Hungarians married Hungarians, Saxons married Saxons. The picture is further complicated by a series of factors, such as: different family fortunes within the same social group, different traditions among the villages of the former serfs, of the border units, of the small nobles, differences dictated by gender, age, by the previous marital status (widow/ers), interdenominational and interethnic marriages, etc. significant cases from the literature of that time are given as examples.

Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy, Transylvania, 19th century, rural Romanian family, matrimonial strategies

Catherine Sumnall, There’s no such thing as sin in the Alps. Some reflections on the historical geography of illegitimacy in Carinthia after 1868, p. 195

Abstract – There’s no such thing as sin in the Alps Some reflections on the historical geography of illegitimacy in Carinthia after 1868 – This paper presents the initial findings of my ongoing PhD project, supervised by Professor Richard Smith at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure. It aims to highlight the methodological contribution geographical analysis can make to historical demography and histories of household structure. It uses a hitherto untapped parish register source: the relation synodalis. Taking the Gurk valley in Carinthia as a case study, I reflect on the spatial dimensions of historical illegitimacy in a rural setting, offering some quantitative emendations to existing theories of its prevalence and persistence, and highlighting the importance of balancing the micro and macro scales in sensitive analysis. The complexity unravelled by the application of spatial statistical analysis helps reveal a world where illegitimacy cannot be unproblematically regarded as a category of deviant behaviour. Rather in some cases it seems to have been a non-ceremonial alternative to marriage, and throughout the Gurk valley from 1880 to 1950 high illegitimacy was a ubiquitous and durable characteristic of its population history.

Keywords: illegitimacy, spatial analysis, micro-geography, courtship, Moran’s Index.

Lidia A. Zyblikiewicz, Social and Occupational Structure of Female Populationin Krakow in the Time of Modernisation (2nd half of the 19th century), p. 225

Abstract – Social and Occupational Structure of Female Population in Krakow in the Time of Modernisation (2nd half of the 19th century) – The source material for the demographic research, the results of which are presented in the paper, consists in common censuses carried out in Krakow in 1857, 1869, 1880 and 1890. The data of the original census records have been transferred into a database which makes possible a discretional analysis of specific issues, which obviously would not be possible on the basis of mere official results of the said censuses published. The database comprises nearly 110 000 records, of approximately 30 fields each. The information from two censuses, the first and the third, have been transferred into it in its entirety, from the remaining two however—on the basis of the representative statistical sample. The chronological scope of the research covers the period in which modernisation processes took place among the city population, which phenomenon is usually interpreted as an effect of industrialisation. The situation of Krakow was specific insofar as one cannot speak of industrialization in relation to this urban centre as such; however, some distinct changes in the social structure can be noticed. At the beginning the reasons are explained for the application of the Booth-Armstrong classification for the analysis of social and occupational structure of the population of women in Krakow and for alterations which have been made in this standardizing and grouping method. Further, the results of the research into the problem of earning by women their own living and occupations undertaken by them were discussed. The structure of population of professionally active women has been analyzed in relation to their age, position held in households they belonged to, their marital status and confession. Finally, a relatively small group of women who owned workshops and employed workers was a subject of analysis, as well as professional and religious structure of this specific group.

Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy, Krakow, 2nd half of the 19th century, female population

• Demographic Aspects, p. 243

Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna, Alessandro Rosina, The fatal season. An analysis of extremely high winter neonatal mortality, p. 245

Abstract – The fatal season. An analysis of extremely high winter neonatal mortality – In Veneto (northeastern Italy) infant mortality increased, starting at 250‰ in the mid-17th century, and reaching 350‰ during 1750-1850, one of the higher level never recorded in Europe. By the early 1900s, however, infant mortality had steadily dropped to 150‰, the lowest level among the Italian regions. These changes were mainly due to the variations in winter neonatal mortality, that in Veneto during 1750-1850 was 3-4 time higher than in areas with similar winter temperatures (as England). We test some hypotheses in explaining these changes, using both the available literature and a new data-set for the 19th century that combines micro-data on neonatal mortality with daily data on temperatures. We suggest that: (1) The increase in winter neonatal mortality in Veneto was mainly due to the deteriorating physical conditions of mothers, that lessened the “quality” of infants who were often not able to endure the temperature shock inherent in winter deliveries; (2) The subsequent decline in neonatal winter mortality is probably associated with the grow of the importance of caring for an infant in its earliest moments of life, both at the familial level and at the socio-political institutional level.

Keywords: Italy, 19th century, infant mortality, living conditions, children care


Péter Õri, Levente Pakot, Demographic Transitions in the Carpathian Basin. Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun and Udvarhely Counties in the Late 19th and Early 20th centuries, p. 277

Abstract – Demographic Transitions in the Carpathian Basin. Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun and Udvarhely Counties in the Late 19th and Early 20th centuries – In this paper we tried to separate the local types and patterns of demographic transition in Hungary before World War I. In the analysis we used the data of two counties (Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun and Udvarhely) of different demographic characteristics. After having described the main contours of the demographic development in the two counties, we tried to point out the demographic differences between and within the two administrative units, and to explain the local variability by the help of the denominational and ethnic character or the spread of modernisation (level of literacy and changing occupational structure). On the basis of the analysis it is clear that the two examined counties represent two different demographic patterns: a rapidly changing one (Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun) and a relatively stable one (Udvarhely). Behind the two general models we could prove the existence of several micro-regional demographic systems. The existence of regional and micro-regional demographic patterns makes our models of the demographic change in the 19th century more complex which complexity is concealed by the country-wide analyses.

Keywords: demographic transition, micro-regional demographic regimes, cluster-analysis

Wilko Schröter, Die Mortalitätsentwicklung in der Wiener Innenstadt von 1784-1912, p. 307

Abstract – The Mortality’s Evolution in Vienna between 1784 and 1912 – The present paper shows the specific features of mortality in Vienna city in the 19th century. As a data source 5 parish registers were used. A detailed analysis of the causes of death reveals the reasons for the „epidemiological change“ from the transition period of proto-industrialisation to the end of industrialisation. The mortality and their development is a useful indicator to describe changes of the urban health conditions when it is differentiated by age and cause of death.

Keywords: Historical demography, mortality, causes of death, Vienna, parish registers

Konrad Wnęk, Mortality Trend and Patterns in Lvov in the Times of Industrialisation (1829-1938), p. 331

Abstract – Mortality Trend and Patterns in Lvov in the Times of Industrialisation (1829-1938) – The paper presents changes in the mortality trends during industrialisation in the capitol of Galicia. The research period covers 82 years continuously. The data have been collected from periodicals published by Municipal Statistical Office (“Wiadomos´ci statystyczne o mies´cie Lwowie”, “Lwów w cyfrach”). Presented facts on mortality confirm occurrence of the demographic transition in the end of 19th and on the beginning 20th century. The analysis of crude death rates indicates the strong declining of mortality in the city in that time. The subject matter was several factors: sex, religion and age. The most interesting observations have been made on the different religion groups. Jews are the first religion group in that declining of mortality has been noticed. The observed changes have led to question about the reasons of these differences. The second part of the paper examines particular features of mortality patterns in Lvov in three time points 1890, 1900, 1910 with special reference to differences by social structure and causes of death. The results suggest that for specific social groups, a substantial portion of the morbidity decrease may be associated with spreading health care and modernisation of the infrastructure but in cases unskilled workers those arguments are failed.

Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy, Poland, Galicia, Lvov, 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, mortality

• Ethno-confessional Aspects, p. 349

Ulfried Burz, Demographie und Nationalismus am Beispiel Kärnten (1848–1918), p. 351

Abstract – Demography and Nationalism illustrated by Carinthia (1848 – 1918) – The increasing industrialisation during the 19th century resulted in a lasting social change, which, in combination with the call for national self-determination from a large number of ethnic groups, set the stage for a multinational state.
These circumstances lead to a broad field of conflicts in the areas of the Austrian Monarchy where two or more nationalities with different languages and economic outputs lived, as for instance in Carinthia.
An essential indicator for charging the social and psychological disposal is given in form of the migration balance.
Surpassing high rates of out-flow of people point towards extraordinary living conditions.
Focusing Carinthia you can see that the Slovene speaking ethnic group got very soon into a policy of confrontation with the political dominating German-national faction, since it tried to emancipate their language and their economical and political representation since 1848.
The equality of all peoples in the “Nation Austria” that was scheduled in the Dezemberverfassung (1867) remained partially a theoretical idea.

Keywords: Demographic transition, demographie and nationalism, national self-determination, migration balance, lasting social change

Peter Teibenbacher, The Austrian crownlands in about 1900: Between West and East—the Hajnal-line revisited, p. 363

Abstract – The Austrian crownlands in about 1900: between West and East—the Hajnal-line revisited – Much has already been written about European Marriage Patterns (Hajnal 1965 and 1983; Kaser 1997; Mitterauer 2004; Engelen and Wolf, 2005), some about East and Central Europa (Cerman 1997 and 2001; Farago 1997; Plakans and Wetherell 1997 and 2005; Schlumbohm 2000; Sovic 2001 and 2005; Szoltysek 2007 and 2008), which the demographic curtain, signed by the Hajnal-line from St.Petersburg to Trieste, is crossing. Less of these publications concern the times of First Demographic Transition and the turn from the 19th to the 20th century. This short article tries to evoke the debate on these issues, it is far away from being able to clear all the related questions. After using main indicators of marriage patterns (demographic variables and occupational/social variables) and applying Cluster analysis in the end three findings must be underlined: First, there are significant lower values for first marriage age and celibacy in predominantly non-German speaking crownlands; second, in the crownlands we can observe a significant tendency of strong lingual minorities to follow the respective majorities; and finally, there are lingual minorities in a special social/occupational position (low situated, more or less temporary migrant workers), which were facing structural nuptial hindrances, regardless of their language—nevertheless these minorities were non-German speaking ones.

Keywords: Cisleithania, Hajnal-line, historical demography

Peter Vodopivec, Bevölkerungsentwicklung und demographische Prozesse in den von den Slowenen besiedelten Gebieten (1860-1914), p. 379

Abstract – The Population Development and Demographic Processes in the Habsburg Provinces populated by the Slovene speaking Population (1860-1914) – The census results in 1900 and 1910 were a real shock for the Slovene public, indicating as they did that Carniola was one of the leading Austrian provinces in terms of net emigration. In the 64 years between 1846 and 1910, the population of Carniola grew by just 11,3%, which meant that around 130,000 people were “missing” compared to the figure expected from natural growth. The results for the regions populated by the Slovene population as a whole were not much better. The population of Cisleithania grew by 57,5% between 1846 and 1910, while the number of Slovenes over that time grew – according to the estimations of Fran Zwitter – by just 18,8%. A relatively dynamic population growth on the Slovene inhabited territory came already before 1848 to an end and the provinces with the Slovene speaking population experienced during the second half of the 19th century – despite the growing birth rate and falling mortality rate – a demographic decline. They remained – with the exception of Trieste and Istria – significantly behind the average population growth in the Habsburg Monarchy before the First World War, what was largely due to the economic circumstances and related emigration. In Carniola alone, the miserable cycle of forced auctions saw over 10.000 peasant smallholdings sold between 1868 and 1893 (around 14% of the total number). The Slovene inhabited territory did not undergo an industrial revolution and the economic changes were rather slow. In these conditions, there was a rapid rise in the number of peasants seeking seasonal work in Croatia, moving to find work in Austrian and German industrial centres, and emigrating to America. By the mid 1890s more than 100.000 people, above all young males, had emigrated and until World War I around 140.000 more followed them. Due to the slow economic development the social structure of the population and the outlook of the towns and villages were also changing slowly. In 1869, over 80% of the population on the territory of the present day Slovenia lived in the countryside, while in 1900, the proportion of the population in the countryside was still over 73%.

Keywords: Habsburg Monarchy, provinces populated by the Slovene speaking population, 1900 and 1910 censuses, population changes

• List of authors, p. 391

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