Transylvanian Review nr. 4/2009


Ioan-Aurel Pop, Liana Lăpădatu, Les débuts de l’Université moderne à Cluj : le Collège jésuite entre 1579 et 1581, p. 3


Abstract The Beginnings of a Modern University in Cluj: The Jesuit College between 1579 and 1581 – The reorganization of the educational system operating within the Catholic Church began before the Reformation, in the early 16th century, focusing on the study of the Holy Scriptures and on the liturgical education of the clergy. Still, the coordinates of the new education were actually set during the Council of Trent. Despite its rather short existence, the Jesuit College of Cluj, established in 1579–1581, and the adjoining seminary (added later) came to create a notable precedent in the life of the principality and triggered a spiritual emulation that remained forever present in the collective memory. From a qualitative point of view, it remained superior to all Protestant educational institutions in Transylvania, being in fact the first university in the history of the principality and the first higher education institution on the pre­sent-day territory of Romania, organized in keeping with principles recognized throughout Europe. Given its successes and its ideals, as well as the “community of masters and students” that took shape around it, the college established in Cluj in 1579–1581 can be said to lie at the foundation of the modern and contemporary European university which we proudly call our Alma Mater Napocensis.


Keywords: Cluj higher education, Jesuits, Antonio Possevino, Catholicism


Doru Radosav, Landmarks in Higher Education in 17th Century Cluj, p. 21


Abstract Landmarks in Higher Education in 17th Century Cluj – The study presents the main events in the life of Cluj higher education institutions during the 17th century—a century marked by the rivalry between the two main denominations, Catholic and Calvinist—from the closing down of the Jesuit College and the subsequent blow to the Catholic educational system in the principality to the establishment of Protestant higher schools (collegium academicum) in Cluj, Alba Iulia, and Aiud. The latter institutions employed famous Protestant scholars, such as Philipp Ludwig Piscator, Johann Heinrich Alsted, János Apáczai Csere, and Johann Heinrich Bisterfeld. Attention is also paid to the draft statute for this type of school, as devised by the German professors teaching in Transylvania, and to the didactic norms laid out by János Apáczai Csere.


Keywords: Cluj higher education, Reformed Academic College of Cluj, college statutes, János Apáczai Csere


Ionuţ Costea, Academic Education in 18th Century Cluj, p. 32


AbstractAcademic Education in 18th Century Cluj – The paper discusses the developments occurred in the education system of Cluj city during the 18th century, chiefly under the impact of the policies pursued by the Court in Vienna and intended to reassert Catholicism and to place the education system in the service and under the control of the state authorities. Among the aspects discussed in the paper we find the introduction of compulsory German classes, the activity of the Jesuit Order, the attempts to establish a local university, the disagreements among the recognized denominations, the restrictions concerning the Protestants, the activity of the Reformed College, of the Unitarian College, and especially of the Jesuit and then Piarist institution of higher education.


Keywords: Cluj higher education, Habsburg Empire, Enlightenment, Reformed College of Cluj, Jesuit schools, Piarists


Vasile Puşcaş, Marcela Sălăgean, Le développement et la modernisation de l’Université de Cluj (1919-1945), p. 46


Abstract The Development and Modernization of Cluj University (1919–1945) – After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, one of the main concerns for the authorities of the successor states was the establishment of new universities or the nationalization of the existing ones. In what Romania is concerned, the reorganization of Cluj University (established as a Hungarian University in 1872) began in 1919, in keeping with the laws regulating Romanian higher education. The nationalization, on 12 May 1919, of the Hungarian Francis Joseph University led to the establishment of the universities of Cluj (the University of Dacia Superior, renamed King Ferdinand I University in 1927—in Romania) and of Szeged (in Hungary), the latter declaring itself the rightful successor of the old university. The Romanian university brought a significant contribution to the modernization of the province that had joined the Kingdom of Romania in 1918, as well as to the modernization of Romanian society in general, being organized according to modern Western principles and participating actively in international academic and scholarly exchanges.


Keywords: Cluj University, modernization, higher education, refuge in Sibiu (1940–1945)


Ilie Rad, Journalism Studies at Babeş-Bolyai University, p. 62


AbstractJournalism Studies at Babeş-Bolyai University The paper provides a brief overview of journalism studies in the city of Cluj Napoca, or indeed at Babeş-Bolyai University. After a survey of the early intentions in this respect, inspired by foreign models as early as the mid–19th century, the paper examines the city’s contribution to the history of journalism and outlines the significant local tradition in this field. The rather dire situation of journalism studies during the communist era is also presented, followed by a more detailed account of the establishment of a specialized department at Babeş-Bolyai University, after the fall of communism.


Keywords: Babeş-Bolyai University, journalism studies, department of journalism, media


Cristian Bârsu, Valeriu Lucian Bologa (1892-1971), p. 72


AbstractValeriu Lucian Bologa (1892–1971) – The article consists of a succinct presentation of the life and work of Valeriu Lucian Bologa, the first Romanian professor of history of medicine and the author of more than 1,100 scholarly and po­pu­larization texts (101 of them written in international languages), a member of six academic societies and of 14 scientific associations, such as the American Association for the History of Me­dicine (1935). He studied at the universities of Jena, Leipzig, Innsbruck, and Cluj. He introduced the first courses in history of medicine at Cluj University, in 1921. Between 1949 and 1971 Valeriu Lucian Bologa was the chairman of the Romanian Society for Medicine History. He coordinated the publication of the treatises on the History of World Medicine (1970) and the History of Romanian Medicine (1972).


Keywords: Valeriu Lucian Bologa, history of medicine, Cluj University


Adinel Dincă, Anthroponymy in Medieval Transylvania: Introductory Considerations Regarding the Historical Sources, p. 82


Abstract Anthroponymy in Medieval Transylvania: Introductory Considerations Regarding the Historical Sources –Anthroponymy has been a reputed but marginal direction within medieval studies, its object of study being chiefly seen as the province of linguistics. During the past three decades, however, historians have begun to show increasing interest in the critical study of given names used throu­g­hout the Middle Ages. The studies devoted to the names given in medieval Transylvania have sought to survey the fund of personal names as presented by existing sources and process it using statis­tical methods, with a view to performing complex analyses in several major directions: the identifica­tion of the basic procedure for name-giving, the classification of the name fund according to social, occupational, and ethnic criteria, and the particular meanings and the developments experienced by the fund of Romanian names in medieval Transylvania. In this context, the study discusses the most relevant sources likely to be useful to such a scholarly endeavor.


Keywords: anthroponymy, personal names studies, medieval Transylvania, registers (as historical sources)


Şerban Turcuş, L’anthroponymie chrétienne dans le Registre d’Oradea, p. 90


Abstract Christian Anthroponymy in the Oradea Register Regestrum Varadinense, the register of the Oradea Court of Law (from the first half of the 13th century) is a record of the cases tried by the Oradea Catholic chapter, particularly important from the point of view of anthroponymy (in the 389 cases tried between 1208 and 1235 we managed to find 1,558 names) and implicitly in what concerns the ethnic and religious composition of the population inhabiting this area of medieval Europe. The original register was kept by clerks coming from Western Europe, but only a 16th century copy still survives. In the register we managed to identify 177 Christian names (taken from the Old and the New Testaments, theophoric names, names of saints and martyrs). The names in the Oradea register come to illustrate the ethnic and cultural layers present in this part of Europe—the ethnic and denominational mix of a Transylvania subjected to the pressure exerted by the Kingdom of Hungary and by the Roman-Catholic Church.


Keywords: medieval names, Christian names, medieval Transylvania, the Roman-Catholic Church


Sorin Şipoş, Entre le Turc et le Hongrois : le Traité d’Alba Iulia du 20 mai 1595, p. 102


AbstractBetween Turk and Hungarian: The 20 May 1595 Treaty of Alba Iulia and Its Consequences – As opposed to the main events that marked the reign of Michael the Brave, the treaty signed at Alba Iulia on 20 May 1595 by Michael the Brave, represented during the preliminary negotiations by a delegation of great boyars and high clergymen, and by Sigismund Báthory, the prince of Tran­sylvania, has been more often than not reduced to a mere mention and has failed to become the object of a thorough analysis, in terms of its provisions and consequences. The delegation of boyars placed Michael and his country under the full civilian and judicial authority of the Transylvanian prince. Their alleged reason was the Turkish threat, which only Sigismund Báthory could counteract. In other words, on behalf of Michael, whose authority they invoked, the boyars accepted an unprecedented treaty whose terms transferred the supreme authority from the man appointed by the sultan to the Transylvanian prince. The latter was to exert this authority with the help of a steward, a position for which the boyars nominated Michael. In this difficult context for the country, Michael appears to be the sacrificial victim, forced to relinquish the supreme authority.


Keywords: Michael the Brave, Sigismund Báthory, Treaty of 1595, Estates, boyars


Daniela Mârza, L’école de filles de Blaj à la fin du XIXe et au début du XXe siècle – pages d’histoire, p. 112


AbstractThe Blaj School for Girls around the Turn of the 19th Century – During the Modern Era, the Blaj School for Girls was one of the most important Romanian educational institutions in Transylvania. Its curriculum ensured that the girls received both the education required by their role in society—as future wives and mothers—and training in the sciences. Its presence alongside the local schools for boys turned the town of Blaj into a true center of Romanian culture.


Keywords: history of education, school for girls, Transylvania, Modern Era, Blaj


Sorin Radu, Une variante inédite de la Résolution d’union d’Alba Iulia, p. 121


AbstractAn Inedited Version of the Union Resolution of Alba Iulia – The present study is devoted to an inedited document, a draft of the Resolution concerning the Union between Transylvania and Romania, discussed and drawn up, in our opinion, prior to the arrival in Alba Iulia of the members of the Central Romanian National Council, which took place on 30 November 1918. Based on the memoirs of some participants, some reputed researchers have mentioned the existence of a draft Resolution drawn up by Vasile Goldiş prior to the arrival of the crnc members in Alba Iulia. The draft was based on the discussions that had taken place between the leaders of the National Party and of the Social Democratic Party, on November 15–30.


Keywords: Union Resolution (1918), Vasile Goldiş, Central Romanian National Council


Antonio Faur, Lilian Zamfiroiu, Romanian Forerunners and Supporters of the Idea of a European Union, p. 131


AbstractRomanian Forerunners and Supporters of the Idea of a European Union – The history of the European idea has mainly been dealt with by Western specialists, and less attention has been paid to the investigations in the field conducted in the countries of Central and South­eastern Europe, Romania among them. Consequently, we believed it necessary to survey, albeit in a cursory fashion, the Romanian initiatives in this direction: G. Sion, A. G. Golescu, Ioan Maiorescu, Dimitrie Brătianu, Nicolae Bălcescu, and Gheorghe Magheru, most of them leaders of the 1848 Revolution. A major Transylvanian contribution is that of Aurel C. Popovici, who envisaged the creation of a United States of Greater Austria, an idea endorsed by the crown prince, Francis Ferdinand. During the interwar period, reputed Romanian intellectuals established solid contacts with the cultural and political circles of Europe, in an effort to bring about the modernization of the country.


Keywords: European federalization, European idea, Aurel C. Popovici

Eva Mârza, Nicolas Iorga et le livre roumain ancien, p. 141

Abstract Nicolae Iorga and Old Romanian Books – The study discusses the bibliological work of historian Nicolae Iorga, focusing on its two main directions: the study of old Romanian books and printing, and the creation of the first inventory of existing ritual objects, books, and icons found in the churches of Transylvania and of Mara­mureş, of the inscriptions found in churches, on bells, on icons, and on the pages of old Ro­ma­nian books, all extremely important from the vantage point of local and ecclesiastical history and for the history of collective mentalities. Within the context of late Romanticism, the historian high­lighted the role played in the history of Romanian culture by books in general and, in particular, by old books.


Keywords: old Romanian books, bibliology, printing, inscriptions, ecclesiastical history

In memoriam
Aurel Răduţiu, Zsigmond Jakó (1916-2008), p. 151
Book Reviews, p.153
Contributors, p. 160

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