Transylvanian Review nr. 4/2008

  • Paradigms

    Ioan-Aurel Pop, De la Rome antique à Washington. Le nom et le destin historique de la Roumanie, p. 3

    Abstract - From Ancient Rome to Washington: The Name and the Historic Destiny of Romania - The belated creation of the modern Romanian state and the adoption of its official name of Romania in the second half of the 19th century are the main reasons behind the confusion present in the work of many foreign authors when it comes to the dual designations Wallachia/Romania and Wallachian/Romanian. Beginning with the Middle Ages, Romanians—just like other peoples (Hungarians, Greeks, Poles, Germans, etc.)—had two names: one used only by foreigners (Wallachian) and another used by themselves (Romanian). The name Romanian derives from the Latin Romanus and preserves the memory of ancient Rome. The name Wallachian probably comes from the name of a Romanized Celtic tribe, the Volcae, and was used to designate those communities that spoke a Neo-Latin language. In both cases, the common denominator was Rome, as the two peoples’ names, Romanian and Wallachian, meant one and the same thing: descendents of the Latins, of the Romans. In 1918, the territory called Romania since ancient times, but only in the ethnic sense, also became Romania from a political and official point of view, and today Romania is a full member of the European community of nations.

    Keywords: Romanian, Wallachian, Romania, Wallachia

    Ioan Bolovan, Sorina Paula Bolovan,Transylvania until World War I: Demographic Opportunities and Vulnerabilities (I), p. 15

    Abstract - Transylvania until World War I: Demographic Opportunities and Vulnerabilities - For centuries, the diversity of traditions and cultures has been one of the major assets of both Europe and Romania. The study examines, in a broad historical perspective, the demographic situation of Transylvania, a multiethnic and multilingual territory. Attention is given to population structure and to the status of the various ethnic groups in the prestatistical era, between 1700 and 1848, and during the Revolution of 1848-1849, highlighting the discrepancy between the numerical presence of the Romanians and their social, political, economic, and cultural status in the province.

    Keywords: historical demography, Transylvania, ethnic minorities, 1848 Revolution, colonization

    Nicolae Bocşan, Liana Lăpădatu, Préliminaires doctrinaires de l’autodétermination des Roumains en 1918, p. 41

    Abstract - Doctrinarian Preliminaries to the Romanian Self-determination of 1918 - In the case of the Transylvanian Romanians, the political ideology of the year 1918 reflected a modern outlook on the concept of nation, as a subject of international public law, based on the principle of nationalities and on the right to national self-determination. This was the juridical foundation of the Union of 1918. The transfer of sovereignty from the dualist Austro-Hungarian Empire to the nation-state occurred on the basis of a spontaneous plebiscite, materialized in the institution of the national councils and in the formula of the representative national gathering of Alba Iulia, which proclaimed the union with Romania of the Romanians living in Transylvania, Banat, and the Hungarian Land.

    Keywords: principle of nationalities, right to national self-determination, Transylvania, Union of 1918

    Liviu Maior, Alexandru Vaida-Voevod in Paris: His Relations with the U.S. Delegation at the Peace Conference (1919), p. 54

    Abstract - Alexandru Vaida-Voevod in Paris: His Relations with the U.S. Delegation at the Peace Conference (1919) - The issue of the Romanian-American relations until 1918 and during the Paris Peace Conference has been in the attention of historians, but they focused mostly on Ion I. C. Brătianu and paid less attention to the actions of his successor at the head of the Romanian delegation in Paris, Alexandru Vaida-Voevod. The present study discusses the latter’s attempts to improve communication with the U.S. delegates and to help clarify the situation and the position of Romania. Vaida’s relations with the U.S. representatives at the Peace Conference in Paris have a particular significance, in the sense that he managed to confront, for the first time, another way of thinking, the American one. Despite his background, he proved to be an experienced politician who could understand the aspirations of his country and adapt to the principles of American democracy.

    Keywords: Romanian-American relations, World War I, Paris Peace Conference, Alexandru Vaida-Voevod, Woodrow Wilson, self-determination

    Paul E. Michelson, The Founding of the Cluj School of History, 1919–1922, p. 68

    Abstract - The Founding of the Cluj School of History, 1919–1922 - The paper examines the main events and the context in which the Cluj School of History was established after the Great Union. The paper begins with a presentation of the historical factors that had previously influenced the local historiographical discourse, such as Magyarization policies, church divisions among the Romanians themselves, and the education system. Then comes a presentation of the actual creation of the new university, with the contribution of many leading Romanian historians, amid the hardships following the end of World War I. Attention is also given to the challenges faced by the school founders (A. Lapedatu, I. Lupaş), to their dilemmas and their choices. The conclusions present the main contributions and successes of the Institute of National History operating within the University of Cluj.

    Keywords: University of Upper Dacia, Cluj School of History, Cluj Institute of National History, A. Lapedatu, I. Lupaş

    Focus

  • FRANCESCO GUIDA - Bibliografia, p. 87

  • Ioan Bolovan, “Non esiste ‘la storia’ ma ‘le storie’”. Intervista con Francesco Guida, p. 96

    Abstract - “There Is No ‘History,’ Only ‘Histories’”: Interview with Francesco Guida - The reputed Italian historian, a specialist in the history of Central and Southeastern Europe, answers here a number of questions regarding Romania’s development throughout the 19th and the 20th centuries, the creation of the modern Italian and Romanian nation-states, the current trends in contemporary Romanian historiography, and the current perception of the year 1918 in Romania and Italy. The interview also touches upon the delicate issue of the Romanian immigration to Italy. Thus, the Italian historian believes that the solutions involve an “Italianization” of the Romanians or/and their socio-economic integration. Over the long term, it is difficult to estimate whether economic developments will favor an increase or a decrease in immigration numbers.

    Keywords: nation-state, Romania, Italy, Romanian immigration to Italy, Romanian historiography

    Francesco Guida, Romania e Italia dalla pace di Bucarest alla vigilia della Conferenza di pace (I), p. 102

    Abstract
    : Romania and Italy from the Peace of Bucharest to the Eve of the Peace Conference - The Italian government and the Italian people received the news about the separate peace concluded in Bucharest by Romania and the Central Powers with great disappointment. Both the government and some political organizations were working to organize a Romanian Legion in Italy, consisting of Austrian-Hungarian prisoners of Romanian nationality and of Romanian citizens self-exiled to Italy. The Legion was organized, but it did not reach the front before the armistice was signed. At the important Congress of Nationalities organized in April 1918 in Rome, the Romanian question was also presented and discussed by some Italian democratic representatives and by some Romanians that had chosen to live in Italy after the start of the war, people such as Simion Mândrescu. Opinions differed considerably when it came to the Legion’s organization and to the future Romanian borders. The majority of Italian observers and journalists were inclined to satisfy the major requests of the Romanian nationalists. Nevertheless, the revolutionary situation in Hungary drove some to prudence and to a more balanced opinion about the Romanian-Hungarian conflict. The Italian socialists manifested their enthusiasm for the Hungarian Left before and after the proclamation of the Councils Republic. All these topics are studied in the present essay on the basis of unpublished archival documents and of the Italian press (with special regard to La Voce dei Popoli, founded and edited by Umberto Zanotti-Bianco).

    Keywords: Romania, Italy, Romanian Legion, end of the WWI, Romanian borders

    Tangencies

  • Sorin Şipoş, On the Avatars of the Written Work of Silviu Dragomir, p. 122

    Abstract
    - On the Avatars of the Written Work of Silviu Dragomir - After his death, historian and politician Silviu Dragomir (1888–1962) received particular attention from specialists. This is demonstrated by the numerous studies and articles on his life and work. I have been concerned with the destiny of the historian, too, and I had to face certain issues in the libraries and archives I visited in search for information. One such place is the Library of the Romanian Academy, where the documents were recorded under number A 2181 a–g. After seven years of repeated requests, I was finally granted permission to consult Silviu Dragomir’s documents on the Diploma of the Knights Hospitaller of 1247. During these years, I had the opportunity to see for myself what the fight against the post-communist censorship actually means. The attempts to consult a manuscript donated to the Library of the Romanian Academy for research purposes, but inaccessible due to the managers of the library, have showed us that sometimes the communist ghosts still haunt Romania.

    Keywords: history, Silviu Dragomir, Diploma of the Knights Hospitaller, post-communist period, Romania

    Octavian Ţîcu , How to Make a ‘Nation’: Reflections on Moldovan Nation-Building Policies during the Soviet Union (1944–1989), p. 130

    Abstract
    - How to Make a ‘Nation’: Reflections on Moldovan Nation-Building Policies during the Soviet Union (1944–1989) - The study examines the manner in which a nostalgia for past life-styles, imperial driving myths, and language fissures combined to create shifting ethnic identities in the case of the former Soviet Republic of Moldova. The emergence of a distinct Moldovan national identity is seen in historical perspective, the focus resting on the Soviet period, when this identity emerged as the result of deliberate policies, ranging from social to cultural and linguistic ones. The study demonstrates that the sense of the Moldovan “imagined community” gained physical and political meaning for the first time during the Soviet Union, in order to justify the eponymous polity and defend it against possible claims by Romania, to which it had belonged between the wars.

    Keywords: USSR, Moldova, national identity, nation-building, Soviet cultural policies, Soviet linguistic policies 

    Book Reviews, p. 154

    Contributors, p. 160

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