Transylvanian Review nr. 3/2008

  • Paradigms

    Tiberiu Ciobanu, Romanian Historiography of the 19th and of the First Half of the 20th Century about Medieval Banat, p. 3

    Abstract Romanian Historiography of the 19th and of the First Half of the 20th Century about Medieval Banat - We attempted to present a synthesis of the most important Romanian historiographical works on the medieval Banat, published between 1830 and 1950. For the period until the first Word War we mentioned the contributions made by Nicolae Stoica of Haţeg, Damaschin Bojincă, August Treboniu Laurian, Vasile Maniu, Nicolae Tincu-Velia, Vincenţiu Babeş, Patriciu Drăgălina and George Popoviciu. During the interwar period the research on the medieval history of this province was carried out by the employees of the Banat Museum, the Banat–Crişana Social Institute—who edited prestigious publications—and of the Vrerea magazine. Some of them stand out due to their remarkable achievements: Iuliu Vuia, Ioachim Miloia, Traian Birăiescu, Traian Simu, Gheorghe Cotoşman, Cornel Grofşorean, Victor Motogna, Ştefan Manciulea, Traian Popa, Ion Stoica-Udrea. Great attention to this theme was also given in the monographs of some places, especially Timişoara (Nicolae Ilieşiu), of some areas, or of the whole Banat (Ioan Lotreanu).

    Keywords: Banat, monograhs, the Middle Ages, national militancy, medieval documents, ethnic identity

    Victor Neumann, Temeswar: eine multi- und interkulturelle Stadt, p. 29

  • Abstract - Banat: A Penal Colony of Maria Theresa? - The Austrian implantations of colonists in Banat were accompanied by certain attempts of the Viennese Court—starting with the reign of Charles VI and continuing under Maria Theresa—to “cleanse” Vienna and its surrounding of its antisocial, criminal elements, of vagrants, of political malcontents, of prostitutes, of those who refused to embrace Catholicism. Thus, between 1752 and 1768, within the so-called “Wasserschub” (forced transportation by water), 3,130 undesirables were shipped to Banat. The attempt to get rid of such elements ended in failure for Vienna, as the deportees returned home with no intention of changing their ways. During the reign of Joseph II, such deportations ceased altogether. In fact, they failed to decisively affect the colonized population of Banat or its social structure.

    Keywords: penal colony, forced transportation by water (Wasserschub), Banat, Maria Theresa

    Rudolf Gräf, Ioan Lumperdean, La StEG, un succès économique au Banat, p. 54
  • Abstract - StEG: An Economic Success in Banat - The study presents the activity of the Imperial and Royal Privileged Austrian State Railway Company (StEG), established on 1 January 1855, one of the most important Central and Eastern European mining and metallurgical companies of that time. The company was financed by private Austrian and French investors. The Banat assets (eight mines, metallurgical plants, forests) purchased by the StEG from the Austrian state for 11,123,046 florins amounted to 133,168 hectares, with 72 localities. The new railways connected Banat to Vienna by way of a direct line. In 1918, StEG was the largest industrial conglomerate in Hungary, later becoming the major heavy industry center in Romania.

    Keywords: StEG, mining, iron smelting, railways, Banat


    Tommaso Limonta, I Tedeschi dei Siebenbürgen: una minoranza di frontiera, p. 61
  • Abstract - The Germans of Transylvania: A Frontier Minority - The author performs a synthetic analysis of the history of Transylvanian Saxons, from their colonization in the 12th century to the “end” of Saxon history, after 1989. Attention is given to the contribution brought by the Transylvanian Saxons to the economic and spiritual development of Transylvania, to their privileged status, enacted by the kings of Hungary, to the importance of these privileges for the survival of the Saxons as a political and national community, to the relations with the other ethnic groups in Transylvania and to their membership in the category of privileged nations, to the role played by the Evangelical Church in the preservation of the Saxons as a political and cultural nation. The final part of the study is devoted to the postwar history of the Saxons, when they had to face the consequences of their previous endorsement of 3rd Reich policies, as well as to the last, post-communist, episode in Saxon history, when the members of this community who had not managed to emigrate until the events of 1989 eventually left the country.

    Keywords:Transylvania, Saxons, Saxon University, Evangelical Church, Greater Romania
  • Tangencies

    Alexandru Simon, Cristian Luca, Documentary Perspectives on Stephen the Great and Matthias Corvinus, p. 85
  • Abstract - Documentary Perspectives on Stephen the Great and Matthias Corvinus - Comparative studies and archival researches, carried on in Austrian, Hungarian or Italian archives and libraries over the last years, have proven how false or at least how misleading these considerations were if applied to medieval Romanian history. The new results challenge and even chan ge traditional perspectives or more recent interpretations based, however, on the same “restrictive framework.” The consequences of these recent additions made by French, German, Hungarian, Italian or Romanian scholars reach beyond the limits of traditional Romanian medieval history. This is illustrated by the long-debated relation between King Matthias Corvinus and Stephen the Great of Moldavia. Starting with a joint Hungarian-Romanian conference in Szeged (2004), occasioned by the 500th anniversary of Stephen the Great’s death, new data and perspectives have emerged from the study of their reigns beyond the classical perspectives or sources (which basically represent, in light of recent investigations, less than a quarter of the preserved documentary data in Southern and Central European archives and libraries). On the eve of another anniversary, 550th years since Matthias’ enthronement and 565th years since his birth in the city of Cluj (Klau sen burg, Kolozsvár), a review of these questions, as well as a presentation of some of the most relevant newfound sources related to the Valachorum regulus and ‘the most Hungarian of all kings’ (Matthias Corvinus) and to the athlete of the Christian faith/seminator malorum (Stephen the Great) can be useful for future researches and interpretations of the far from exhausted medieval period.

    Keywords: crusades, medieval Central and Eastern Europe, Wallachians (Romanians), Hungarians (Magyars), diplomacy, archives

    Michele Rallo, I ”Regni meteora” nell’Europa Orientale durante le guerre mondiali, p. 114

    - “Meteoric Kingdoms” in Eastern Europe during the Two World Wars - Among the strange developments experienced by Eastern Europe during the two World Wars we also find the creation of polities that appeared overnight and survived for a short period of time, only to disappear afterwards almost without a trace. Despite being true states, in every sense of the word, these kingdoms are hardly ever mentioned in history books. This is the case with the Kingdom of Epirus, which lasted between 1914 and 1916 and was ruled by Georgios Christakis-Zografos, with the direct support of the Orthodox Church. Similarly, the Principality of Pindus was created in 1941 by the Italian occupation force in Greece, in the hope of placating the Aromanian autonomists, and it actually managed to survive the fall of fascism in Italy, being finally re-annexed by Greece around the year 1947. Somewhat different was the case of the Kingdom (Volodate) of Ukraine, first proclaimed on 14 December 1918, only to disappear one year later. It was revived by Ruthenian autonomists in 1939, but chiefly as a theoretical concept, and not so much as a working polity.

    Keywords: World War I, World War II, Eastern Europe, Kingdom of Epirus, Principality of Pindus, Kingdom of Ukraine

    Sorin Arhire, The Foreign Policy of the Legionary Movement during the National-Legionary Regime in Romania. Attitudes towards Britain, p. 120
  • Abstract - The Foreign Policy of the Legionary Movement during the National-Legionary Regime in Romania: Attitudes towards Britain -Taking into account the incessant Romanian-Russian antagonism, the Legionary Movement’s permanent position was that British foreign policy was incompatible with that of Romania, the latter having problems and enemies different from those of Britain. The belief in the negative role that the Jews had in Romania and the powerful influence of the Jewish circles in Britain increased the anti-British feelings of the legionnaires. Britain was accused, directly or indirectly, of all possible evils, the anti-British psychosis being extremely strong within the ranks of the Legion. Consequently, the British guarantee extended to Romania in April 1939 was seen as nothing more that empty words and London was considered the center of the international Jewish Masonry. The loss of Bessarabia and the Vienna Award would never have taken place had it not been for the alignment of Romania’s foreign policy to that of the Foreign Office. Poland allegedly refused the German invitation to discussions due to British interference, Britain being thus accused of starting the Second World War. The activity of the governments in exile to London—which, according to the members of the Legionary Movement, led a policy opposed to the interests of their own countries—did not escape notice, and neither did the tendency of British diplomacy to encircle Germany. The conclusion was that, according to the legionnaires, an alliance with Britain was out of the question. Furthermore, Britain had to be driven away from the continent, since its “perfidiousness” was the cause of all unfortunate events occurred in the past in the field of international relations.

    Keywords: Britain, Germany, Legionary Movement, Romanian foreign policy, National Legionary State

    History of Religions
  • Corin Braga, Paradis terrestre, Millénium et Utopie (II), Trois variantes du « lieu parfait » ŕ la Renaissance, p. 129
  • Abstract - Terrestrial Paradise, Millennium and Utopia (II): Three Versions of the “Perfect Place” of the Renaissance - The study discusses three versions of an imaginary construct extremely recurrent in European and world literature, namely, the “perfect place”: the terrestrial paradise, the millennium, and utopia. The three topoi in question form an equation with three terms. The study seeks to demonstrate that the themes of the millennium and of utopia emerged as the garden of Eden became forever closed following the original sin. After this initial catastrophe, the Judeo-Christian religion and later the humanists of the Renaissance sought other paths to salvation, no longer situated in the past, at the dawn of time, but rather at the end of history or in spaces alternate to our own.

    Keywords: Terrestrial Paradise, Millennium, Utopia, medieval and Renaissance literature, Thomas More
  • Literature
  • Ioana Bot, Mircea Vasilescu, Pour une histoire du journalisme roumain moderne : idéologie et discours, p. 146
  • Abstract - For a History of Romanian Modern Journalism: Ideology and Discourse - The dossier presents the results of a research project on this topic carried out in the 2007–2008 academic year in the Faculties of Letters belonging to Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca and to Bucharest University, within the framework of a NEC-Link grant of New Europe College, Institute for Advanced Studies, Bucharest. Divided into two semester-long parts devoted to topics like Figures of violence in Romanian journalistic discourse in the Modern Era and European identity and national specificity in the interwar Romanian cultural press, the project seeks to devise a new perspective on nationalism as an ideology, but also on journalistic discourse as a major component of modern 20th century Romanian literature.

    Keywords: journalism, ideology, discourse, nationalism, Romanian literature

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