Transylvanian Review nr. 1/2008

  • Paradigms

  • Catalin Turliuc, Modernization and/or Westernization in Romania during the Late 19th Century and the Early 20th Century, p. 3

  • Abstract - Modernization and/or Westernization in Romania during the Late 19th Century and the Early 20th Century - The paper highlights the importance of the concepts of modernization and Westernization for any investigation of the situation of Romania in the late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. After a detailed analysis of the concepts of modernization and Westernization, as they appear in the specialized literature, with the specific interpretations given to each and with the differences between them, the paper briefly surveys the fields in which these processes were manifest in Romania during the period in question, from industry to law and culture.

  • Keywords: westernization, modernization, turn of the century Romania, industrialization

  • Iosif Marin Balog, The Agrarian Reforms Introduced at the Middle of the 19th Century: Their Effects Upon the Modernization of Transylvanian Society (1850–1880), p. 12

  • Abstract - The Agrarian Reforms Introduced at the Middle of the 19th Century: Their Effects Upon the Modernization of Transylvanian Society (1850–1880) - The changes affecting the nature of property relations in agriculture and the new tendencies they set in motion altered the general dynamics of the agricultural sector in the direction of modernization, despite the inertia and the fractures that accompanied it. The paper examines, through a comprehensive recourse to the statistical records of the time, the changes occurred in the ownership structure of Transylvanian lands following the Patent of 1854. The modernization process that followed is investigated in light of the effects of the aforementioned agrarian reform, attention being paid to the introduction of new agricultural methods and machinery, to the changes occurred at the level of collective mentalities, and to the developments on the produce market.

  • Keywords: 19th century Transylvania, agriculture, agrarian reforms, modernization, land ownership

  • Rodica Ianos, Modernisation du discours didactique dans l’enseignement primaire roumain de Transylvanie au milieu du XIXe siecle, p. 28

  • Abstract - The Modernization of Didactic Discourse in Transylvanian Primary Education at the Middle of the 19th Century - The study is a succinct presentation of the Romanian pedagogical thought of that time, which is compared to European pedagogy in general. The paper also analyzes the textbooks used in primary education, as well as the first Romanian books on pedagogy and teaching methodology. The pedagogic discourse used in mid-19th century Transylvania reveals the attempts made by the local intellectual elites to lay the foundations of a modern education system, different from the Church-dominated one of the past and oriented towards practicality, in order to train citizens capable of improving or surpassing their inherited social status.

  • Keywords: pedagogy, primary (elementary) education, textbooks (primers)

  • Cristina Gudin, Aspects Concerning the Modernization of Primary Education during the Second Half of the 19th Century, p. 42

  • Abstract - Aspects Concerning the Modernization of Primary Education during the Second Half of the 19th Century - During the second half of the 19th century, education experienced a process of constant change, gradually integrating modern elements into its organization. Notable for the changes occurred in the whole education sector, the interval which began with the 1864 Law of Public Education saw the consecration of firm principles such as secularization and the focus on the practical side of the training process. Developed and supported by people highly familiar with the schools of that time, these principles were implemented to the extent in which the resources, human and financial, and especially the legal framework, made it possible. Of course, one must not overlook here the other developments which helped modernize this field, from the new understanding of student roles—with pupils presently playing an active part in the learning process—to the prominent place given to intuition in primary education. These aspects would have major consequences upon both curricula and school textbooks.

  • Keywords: education system, modernization, primary education, normal schools, curricula, textbooks

  • Laurentiu Vlad, Étudiants roumains à l’Université Libre de Bruxelles : Les titulaires d’un doctorat en sciences politiques et administratives (1885-1898), p. 53

  • Abstract - Romanians at the Free University of Brussels: Doctoral Students in Political Science and Administration (1885–1898) - The study is based upon a few pieces of information—so far little known or ignored by Romanian historiography—concerning the 14 Romanian youths (13 from the Kingdom of Romania and one from Austria-Hungary) who obtained doctoral titles in political science and administration at the Free University of Brussels in 1885–1898.Between 1863 and 1898, a total of 41 Romanians successfully defended here their doctoral theses in political science and administration—the largest number of doctoral titles awarded to non-Belgian students.

  • Keywords: Free University of Brussels, doctoral students of Romanian origin, political science and administration, elites, intellectuals

  • Rudolf Dinu, Modernité et tradition dans la politique étrangère du Vieux Royaume : Structures et mécanismes de decision, p. 62

  • Abstract - Modernity and Tradition in the Foreign Policy of the Old Kingdom: Decision-Making Structures and Mechanisms - In pre-war Romania, diplomacy remained the exclusive province of King Carol I. Just like in many other European states, the monarch was seen here as the single most important factor likely to ensure the continuity of foreign policy. Until the First World War, the king and his ministers managed foreign affairs in keeping with the principle of arcana imperii, allowing the legislative no power of oversight. In matters of foreign policy, the king cooperated only with the chairman of the Council of Ministers and/or with the Minister of Foreign Affairs. An equally limited number of “executants” and “initiates” came on the immediately inferior level. During the long period of liberal supremacy, which ended with I. C. Brătianu’s resignation in 1888, decisions were made collectively within this group, but after that moment the king assumed a dominant position. The members of the diplomatic corps, the MPs, most cabinet members, and even some ministers of foreign affairs found themselves excluded from the making of the country’s foreign policy.

  • Keywords: foreign policy, pre-war Romania, King Carol I, diplomacy, I. C. Bratianu

  • Transsilvanica

  • Loránd Mádly, Les réformes concernant la division politico-administrative de la Transylvanie dans la décennie néo-absolutiste, p. 79

  • Abstract - Reforms Concerning the Political and Administrative Organization of Transylvania during the Neo-absolutist Decade - The neo-absolutist regime set up following the defeat suffered by the Hungarian Revolution of 1848–1849 effected a number of political and administrative reforms in Transylvania, introducing a centralized and uniform system based on proportional representation and on the equal rights of all Transylvanian nations, as well on the coincidence between the territorial and the fiscal and judicial units. The new organization of the Austrian Empire also brought with it the decline of the neo-absolutist regime, as the late 1850s saw a revival of provincial political autonomy, in the spirit of liberalism.

  • Keywords: political and administrative organization, neo-absolutism, reforms

  • Vasile Dobrescu, Economic and Political Aspects Pertaining to the Romanian National Movement from Transylvania , p. 90

  • Abstract - Economic and Political Aspects Pertaining to the Romanian National Movement from Transylvania - From various doctrinarian or ideological angles, and in various forms, Romanian historiography has highlighted the manner in which political and cultural goals combined with the need for economic progress among the Transylvanian Romanians. Quite often, this interaction sought to produce a distinct network of economic relations defined along national lines. The radical shift occurred in our national historiography after 1989, when new topics were approached and the old ones were revisited from an entirely new perspective, with the help of the methods and techniques currently used in Europe, opened unlimited horizons to the researchers working in the field of history.

  • Keywords: Romanian national movement in Transylvania, Romanian historiography, economy and politics

  • Ion Zainea, Aspects Concerning the Nationalization of Denominational and Private Schools from Bihor County (1948–1949), p. 100

  • Abstract - Aspects Concerning the Nationalization of Denominational and Private Schools
    from Bihor County (1948–1949)
    - The nationalization process which began on an unprecedented scale in the early postwar years did not spare the education institutions under private or ecclesiastical administration. In Bihor county, the nationalization proceeded in three stages: 26–28 July 1948, January–February, and June–July 1949. First to be nationalized were the Roman-Catholic and the Reformed schools, followed by those of the Greek-Catholic and of the Orthodox denominations. Numerous documents present in the county archives come to shed light on the nature of the various assets that were nationalized, on the standard procedure employed, and on the membership of the commissions which implemented the nationalization directives. Also, the reports submitted by these commissions suggest that the responses to the process ranged between false enthusiasm and resignation or tacit opposition.

  • Keywords: nationalization of schools, Bihor county, Roman-Catholic schools, Greek-Catholic schools, Reformed schools, Orthodox schools

  • Adina-Maria Cornea, Italian Companies in Transylvania: A Multicultural Approach, p. 114

  • Abstract - Italian Companies in Transylvania: A Multicultural Approach - This article focuses on the Italian companies that invest in Romania, chiefly in Transylvania. We sought to investigate the possible non-economic reasons that make Italian investors delocalize in Transylvania. By analysing a set of questionnaires that we sent to the representatives of those companies, we drew several conclusions concerning this phenomenon. Practically speaking, it is a circular Italian-Romanian movement based on economic matters but also on a common cultural background, Latin traditions and mentalities, and a Romance language.

  • Keywords: Italian companies, Transylvania, delocalization, questionnaire, cultural aspects, Latin roots


    Stefan Borbély, The Ethnic Map, p. 139

  • Abstract - The Ethnic Map - The study focuses on the different mechanisms and criteria involved in the definition of Hungarian and Romanian ethnic identities, surveying a number of contrasting elements such as space, history, and the level of culture and civilization. The conclusions of the analysis come to account for the various approaches to the issue of an accurate ethnic map and for the interpretations given to the results of the 1930 census of Romania’s population.

  • Keywords: ethnic identity, political bias, ethnic map, language, religion, census

  • Fine Arts

  • Gudrun-Liane Ittu, Margarete Depner (1885-1970) – eine fast vergessene bildende Künstlerin, p. 145

  • Abstract - Margarete Depner (1885–1970): An Almost Forgotten Artist - Born in a good bourgeois family of Braşov, a city with a considerable artistic life during the interwar period, Margarete Scherg studied with various local artists and, after her marriage to the reputed doctor and surgeon Wilhelm Depner, in the Budapest drawing school led by Professor Réti. Between 1925 and 1928, she resided in Munich, studying the developments experienced by German art, and in 1931 we find her in Berlin, in the studio of sculptor Joseph Thorak. Then came a last study trip to Paris and, until 1944, a number of participations to official sculpture exhibitions in Bucharest. Rejecting both the experimental and the triumphalistic models, Margarete Depner's sculpture favored the classical forms, which she transposed in creations ranging from small busts to funeral monuments.

  • Keywords - classical forms, sculpture, portraitist, gatherer, funeral art

  • Book Reviews, p. 154

  • Contributors, p. 160

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