Transylvanian Review nr. 1/2007

Paradigms
  • Ioan-Aurel Pop, Les Roumains et l’Europe au Moyen Age, p. 3
  • Abstract: Romanians and Europe in the Middle Ages- The discussion concerning the place and the role of Romanians in Europe is quite relevant today, es­ pecially in light of the country’s joining the eu on 1 January 2007. In contemporary historiogra­ phy we can find the most diverse opinions concerning the Romanians’ relation with Europe, ran­ ­ ging between the idea of a constant and primordial Romanian presence in Europe and the complete denial of any contribution from the part of this small nation, incapable of enriching in any way the culture and the civilization of the Old Continent. As modern Europe has been fashio­ ned after a Western model, Romanians remained on the fringes of that Catholic and Protestant Europe, but were never separated from it or opposed to its values. Despite the various “Iron Curtains,” they were never a demarcation line between “Latins” and “Greeks,” between Westerners and Easterners. The area was one of contacts and exchanges, coming to presently enrich the new Europe and increase its charm and self-confidence, despite the lingering fears and seemingly strange customs.
  • Keywords: Romanians and Europe, the Middle Ages, “Latins” and “Greeks,” East and West
  • Liviu Maior, National Integration, Europeanism, and Modernity (1848–1918), p.10
  • Abstract - National Integration, Europeanism, and Modernity (1848–1918): A Few Considerations - The Revolution of 1848 provided a new framework for the process of national integration. In the pursuit of their national aspirations, the members of the Transylvanian Romanian intellectual elite contemplated alternatives and solutions inspired by the dominant trends and by the events unfolding at that time in the rest of Europe, realizing full well that they would not succeed in establishing the nation-state in the absence of foreign support. Several models were envisaged, foreshadowing the process of European unification occurred during the second half of the 20th century: from the transformation of Central Europe into a federation, inspired by the North-American model, or into a confederation similar to Switzerland, to the later design of Aurel C. Popovici, who devised a new political system meant to eliminate dualism and reorganize the empire into what was suggestively called “The United States of Greater Austria.”
  • Keywords: national identity, national integration, Revolution of 1848, modernization
  • Mihai Alexandrescu, David Mitrany: From Federalism to Functionalism, p. 20
  • Abstract - David Mitrany: From Federalism to Functionalism - Although an intellectual of Romanian extraction, so far David Mitrany has been largely ignored by our historiography. In the context of the new European identity of our country, it becomes even more relevant to consider the example of a thinker who quite early in this century devoted his efforts to the possible avenues of continental development. The present article discusses the main features of the theory supported and further developed by Mitrany, the so-called functionalist approach, which emerged around the middle of the century as an alternative to the federalist designs for a futu­ re international system. Mitrany’s early adversity to any form of regionalization becomes particularly relevant at a time when the European Union is faced with difficult choices concerning its own future.
  • Keywords: functionalism, federalism, international government, European integration
  • Vasile Puscas, eu Accession Negotiations: The Case of Romania, p. 34
  • Abstract - eu Accession Negotiations: The Case of Romania- Romania needed and still needs a reform of the society as a whole, a moder­ ni­ zation of society. This is a special characteristic of the very evolution of the coun­ try and not only a requirement for eu accession; it is a demand driven by the need to ensure a better future for Romania. The preparation for accession to the eu was concomitant with the process of internal modernization (consisting of radi­ cal changes both at the infrastructure and society levels). These radical changes could be summed up as the Europeanisation process.
  • Keywords: Europeanization, modernization, enlargement process, Romania’s accession to the European Union
  • AdrianLiviu Ivan, Romania and European Integration: “Nationalists” versus “Europeanists”, p. 47
  • Abstract - Romania and European Integration: “Nationalists” versus “Europeanists” - Despite the institutional reality of the European Union, the “state of Europe” remains largely the concern of politicians and specialized commentators, being disregarded by the citizens of the member states. The present study focuses on the still superficial understanding of European realities by Romanians and on the division between “nationalists” and “Europeanists.” The main arguments raised by both sides are examined in a brief survey that reviews the statements made by the main Romanian commentators involved in this debate.
  • Keywords: Romania’s accession to the European Union, European identity, European values, nationalism, Europeanism, integration
  • Andrei Marga, The Cultural Legitimacy of the EuropeanUniversity, p. 56
  • Abstract  - The Cultural Legitimacy of the European University- If we take into account the growing functional differentiation manifest in late modernity, and the changes in society, knowledge, as well as the new needs present in these societies, then there is good reason to question the activity of many institutions of today (political, military, communicational, educational, commercial, etc.). In the case of the university, the changes involve fundamental aspects, as the second oldest institution in Europe—after the Church—is requested to legitimise itself once again in a society already torn away from the continuity of history and reconfigured as a result of its own resources: money, administrative power, knowledge, information, culture. The author pleads in favor of the legitimacy of the European university, of its cultural legitimacy in its current acceptation, by way of a three-tiered argumentation: firstly, the author evokes the initial legitimation of universities which modeled the history of European higher education; secondly, he identifies the mission and the functions of the European university; thirdly, he shows the challenges that the legitimation of the European university faces today. Finally, the author discusses the cultural profile of today’s European university.
  • Keywords: legitimacy, university, mission of the university, functions of the university, cultural legitimacy
Profile
  • Valer Moga, Un Français dans les Balkans, p. 75
  • Abstract - A Frenchman in the Balkans - Henri Prost (1891–1970), a French economist with a background in history and law, spent three decades in the Balkans, first as a member of the Inter-Allied Commission responsible for the implementation of the Treaty of Neuilly (1919), then as deputy director of the Balkan Bank, deputy general manager of the Bulgarian Credit Bank, technical adviser (after 1931) to the Romanian Agricultural Credit and Loans, deputy chairman of the Colombia French-Romanian Oil Company, technical adviser (1947–1950) to the Office for Private Assets and Interests of the French Legation in Bucharest. Extremely familiar with the situation in the Balkans—and especially with that in Romania and Bulgaria—Henri Prost published a book called Destin de la Roumanie (1918–1954) (Paris, 1954), both a historical investigation and a memoir, translated into Romanian only as late as 2006.
  • Keywords: Henri Prost, Balkans, Bulgaria, Romania, Destin de la Roumanie (1918–1954)
Tangencies
  • Hadrian Gorun, Les pourparlers russo-roumains de 1915 au sujet des futures frontičres de la Roumanie, p. 93
  • Abstract - The Russian-Romanian Negotiations of 1915 Concerning the Future Borders of Romania - After nearly four months of contacts, discussions, and protractions—during which France played a decisive mediation role, reconciling the diverging positions of the governments in Petrograd and Bucharest—the Romanian diplomacy managed to obtain from the Entente the recognition of Romania's national aspirations, in the form of guarantees concerning the future borders of the Romanian Kingdom. In exchange, Romania had to abandon its neutrality and enter the war against Austria-Hungary. A political and military agreement in this respect was to be drawn up by the two parties. The territories desired by Romania were Transylvania, Maramureş, Banat, and Bukovina (as far as the river Pruth).
  • Keywords: World War I, Entente, Ion I. C. Brătianu, Jean-Camille Blondel, Théophile Delcassé, Sergey Sazonov, territorial claims
  • Ion Carja, L’image de l’empereur Charles Ier (IV) d’Autriche-Hongrie parmi les Roumains de Transylvanie (1916-1918), p. 113
  • Abstract -The Image of Emperor Charles I (IV) of Austria-Hungary with the Transylvanian Romanians (1916–1918) - The image of the last Austrian emperor and Hungarian king in the political consciousness and in the collective mentality of the Romanians living in the dualist monarchy was indeed a complex and multi-faceted one, structured at several levels. The first level is that of the “official” image promoted by the press and by the hierarchy of the two RomanianChurches, Orthodox and Greek-Catholic. Then comes Charles’ image with the Romanian Transylvanian elite, integrated within the state establishment, loyal to the dualist regime and interested in securing the most convenient postwar political formula possible. Gradually, a dual perception of Charles began to take shape: the man loved as “the emperor in Vienna” and hated as “the apostolic king” of Hungary, with loyalty to the empire—“dynastic patriotism”—eventually giving way to national loyalty.
  • Keywords - Charles I (IV) of Habsburg, dynastic loyalty, national loyalty, Austria-Hungary, Transylvanian Romanians
Literature
  • Valentin Tascu, Introduction to the Theory of Rhythm, p. 130
  • Abstract - Introduction to the Theory of Rhythm - Whole generations of poets and poetry readers lived with the obsession of versification, prosody, and metrics. It was due, on the one hand, to the tradition of ancient Greek and Latin poetry, and, on the other hand, to the insistence of certain academic institutions, schools, and scholarly trends to “direct” poetic creation towards the classicized and secure models of Antiquity. Today, however, an ever larger group of researchers deny the actual validity of the so complicated classical prosody and metrics. In the present study, it is stress that is deemed essential to poetry—not the simple stress, determined by breathing, but the strong stress, the one doubled or tripled by content and meanings. And, as stress is the distinctive marker of rhythm, the focus will be on rhythm and its complex value, from international contributions to its theory to the observations, theories and opinions voiced by various Romanian scholars.
  • Keywords: poetry, prosody, rhythm, literary theory, stress in poetry
  • In Memoriam
  • Ioan Bolovan, Jean Nouzille, p. 159
 
 

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