Transylvanian Review nr. 2/2007

Paradigms
  • Cesare Alzati, Fondamenti religiosi dell’Impero: modello giustinianeo ed esiti occidentali, p. 3
  • Abstract - The Religious Foundations of the Empire: Justinian’s Model and Its Western Derivatives - The paper discusses the assimilation by Western Europe, via Constantinople, of the universalistic tradition of the Roman Empire, seeking the motivations and trying to explain the shift from an imperial ideology to the concept of fraterna Christianitas.
  • Keywords: Imperial ideology, medieval philosophy, Western Empire, Byzantium, Universalism
  • Vasile Marculet, Relations between Duke Menumorut and the Byzantine Empire, p. 11
  • Abstract  - Relations between Duke Menumorut and the Byzantine Empire  - The information concerning the existence of Byzantine suzerainty over the Bihor duchy led by Menumorut, as conveyed by Anonymous, was not made up by the chronicler, but rather reflected the political and juridical relations existing between the two entities around the turn of the 10th century. Consequently, we consider that, even if Menumorut didn’t receive his investiture from the Byzantine Empire at the very beginning of his reign, it is most certain that he received official confirmation of his status from the Byzantine Court at a later time, more precisely, after accepting to become a vassal of Byzantium, sometime before the beginning of the 10th century. Considered in the complex framework of Byzantine-Romanian relations, the relations between Duke Menumorut and the Byzantine Empire, established sometime in the second half of the 9th century or at the beginning of the 10th century, could be seen as marking the beginning of official, institutionalized relations between the Byzantine Empire and the polities situated on the Romanian lands north of the Danube.
  • Keywords: Byzantine Empire, the Bihor duchy, Menumorut, vassalage relations, suzerainty
  • Florin Soporan, L’Étranger de chez moi. La colonisation de l’Est par les Germains, p. 26
  • Abstract - Foreigners at Home: Saxon Colonization in the East  - The German colonization of Central and Eastern Europe (Drang nach Osten) was a complex process, varying from one region to another and generating more or less intense reactions according to existing socio-political or religious circumstances. Relations between the colonists and the local ethnic groups—Slavs, Baltics, Hungarians, Romanians, etc.—were not marred by constant hostility and suspicion—as argued by some nationalist historians—, but neither were they the epitome of interethnic and inter-confessional tolerance, as argued by some authors motivated by reasons of contemporary relevance. Apart from its beneficial economic effects, the German presence served as a catalyst for the national identity feelings of the peoples of Central and Eastern Europe. Furthermore, given their natural desire to maintain their legal individuality, the colonists did their best to maintain the political balance throughout the region.
  • Keywords: German colonization, Central and Eastern Europe, privileges, urbanization, sense of national identity
  • Ionut Costea, Sous le signe de Janus. Les rapports entre la noblesse et le prince en Transylvanie  au XVIIe siecle, p. 43
  • Abstract - Under the Sign of Janus: Relations between Noblemen and the Prince in 17th Century Transylvania - In 16th and 17th century Transylvania (a principality under Ottoman suzerainty), Reformation and Counterreformation met amid the Ottoman-Habsburg rivalry over the territory belonging to the former HungarianKingdom. The constitutional political regime of the principality was based upon the presence of three privileged Estates—the nobles (mostly Hungarian), the Saxons, and the Szeklers—and of four recognized religions—Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran, and Unitarian. Some princes ruled in an authoritarian fashion (Gabriel Bethlen, George Rákóczi I), while others were under the control of the Estates (Michael Apafi). Against the backdrop of a paternalist, typically medieval state system, relations between the prince and the nobles shifted between loyalty and treason and felony trials.
  • Keywords: Principality of Transylvania, 17th century, prince, nobles, Estates, loyalty, felony trials
  • Flavia Teoc, Un pionnier du baroque : Martin Opitz, p. 63
  • Abstract - A Pioneer of the Baroque—Martin Opitz  - In the year 1622, the young intellectual Martin Opitz was invited by Transylvanian Prince Gabriel Bethlen to teach at the college recently established in Alba Iulia. Initially associated with the Calvinist propaganda movement, his presence in Transylvania could, however, be considered from a number of additional angles. It is our contention that Martin Opitz—a Calvinist scholar and a graduate of Heidelberg University, trained in an environment influenced by the Reformed German Christians who called themselves Rosicrucian brothers—accepted this invitation to Transylvania in keeping with the agenda of this new religious movement, which resorted to alchemy in order to develop evangelical piety and which had set up a comprehensive program of scientific investigations in an attempt to reform existing science. Martin Opitz remained in Transylvania between 1622 and 1623, and it was during this time that he wrote the poem Zlatna oder der Ruhe des Gemuthes, the exemplary creation of a pioneer of the Baroque.
  • Keywords: Martin Opitz, HeidelbergUniversity, Transylvania, Rosicrucian movement, Baroque
  • Cinzia Franchi, Transilvania, Europa e “OltreEuropa”.  Sulla traduzione italiana delle Lettere dalla Turchia di Kelemen Mikes, p.72
  • Abstract - Transylvania, Europe, and the “Europe Beyond” [OltreEuropa]: On the Italian Translation of the Letters from Turkey by Kelemen Mikes - The study discusses the current situation of the translation and publication in Italy of works belonging to a “minor” literature such as the Hungarian one, starting from the recent publication in Italian (Rome: Lithos, 2006) of the epistolary novel Törökországi Levelek (Letters from Turkey, 1717–1758) by Kelemen Mikes (1690–1761), a Transylvanian Hungarian writer with a Jesuit education who accompanied Ferenc Rákóczi II (the last prince of Transylvania and leader of an anti-Habsburg rebellion) in his French and Turkish exile.
  • Keywords: Kelemen Mikes, Letters from Turkey, Italian translations from Hungarian literature
Focus
  • Mihai Sora, Bio-bibliographical Note, p. 82
  • Bruno Mazzoni, “Meeting the Other Gives Me Great Satisfaction.” Interview with Mihai Sora, p. 83
  • Abstract - “Meeting the Other Gives Me Great Satisfaction”- Interview with Mihai Sora - Interviewed by Bruno Mazzoni during the round table devoted to him and hosted by the Romanian Institute of Culture and Research in the Field of Humanities, in Venice, on 15 March 2007, philosopher Mihai Şora spoke about the education he received in Bucharest and later in France, about his early research concerns, and about the plight of a Romanian intellectual trapped by the communist regime set up in Romania after World War II. We are presented with the various stages in the career of a thinker who found it possible to freely pursue his philosophical interests only after his retirement, and especially after the fall of the communist regime.
  • Keywords: Romanian philosophy, Mihai Sora, biography
  • Aurel Codoban, Dialogism and Ontology, p. 90
  • Abstract - Dialogism and Ontology - Despite all appearances, the presence of Mihai Sora in Romanian culture is today just as singular as it was before 1989. Beyond any doubt and in the full sense of the word, he has always been the quintessential Philosopher. First and foremost, this singularity stems from a contrast with regard to the cultural context in which he has been operating. Whether we like it or not, the great tradition in Romanian culture is not philosophical, but rather philological-historical in nature. Despite his cultural singularity—and even despite his solitude—, Sora’s philosophical discourse is a dialogical one. He is the undeniable master of dialogue, if we look at the philosophy of the past fifty years. Sora’s ontology, that which supports the dialogical character of his approach, eludes these doubly determined typologies: it is essentially and mainly an ontology of Being, but also, at a secondary level, an ontology of depth/origin.
  • Keywords: Mihai Sora, dialogue, ontological model
  • Mihai Sora, I and You and He and She…, p. 98
  • Abstract - I and You and He and She… - The translated fragment is an excerpt from the book Eu & tu & el & ea... sau Dialogul generalizat (I & you & he & she… or Generalized dialogue) written towards the end of the communist period in Romania, in 1988, but published in the first year after the fall of the communist regime, in 1990. Given the widespread deterioration of inter-human relations, currently dominated by a general ideological monologue, Mihai Şora proposes instead an authentic dialogue, between free subjects equal in dignity, advancing the possibility of a proper community, separated both from anarchic individualism and from monolithic communization. This ethical-political design gains contour in the framework of a neo-Thomist philosophy and of a dialogical hermeneutics based upon the intimate connections between three verbs: to be, to do, to have.
  • Keywords: dialogue, community, to be, to have, I–you
Tangencies
  • Stefan Damian, Sextil Puscariu sul fronte italiano della Prima guerra mondiale, p. 107
  • Abstract - Sextil Puscariu on the Italian Front during World War I  - The study investigates the manner in which the events of World War I were reflected in the memoirs of the Romanian scholar, who experienced them on the Austrian-Italian front. Beyond the sense of duty towards his home country, the dualist empire, Romance scholar and philologist Sextil Puscariu (1877–1948) constantly experienced and demonstrated a strong affection for Italy, a country widely considered to be the sister of Romania and of Romanians everywhere and therefore expected to provide assistance whenever necessary.
  • Keywords: World War I, Sextil Puscariu, battlefront, Romanians
Interferences
  • Mircea Maran, Emil Gavrilla et  sa collaboration avec les Roumains, p. 122
  • Abstract  - Emil Gavrilla and His Cooperation with the Romanians  - Lawyer and journalist Emil Gavrilla (1861–1933) was one of the political leaders of the Serbs living in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and united in the Serbian Radical Party. He advocated a policy of compromise and cooperation between the opposing Serbian factions and, in general, between the nations (nationalities) of the empire, the common purpose being to counteract the policy of assimilation (Hungarization) promoted by the Hungarian authorities. He was the defense lawyer in the trial against the Romanian authors of the Memorandum (1894) and played an important part in the organization of the Congress of Nationalities (Budapest, 1895), which adopted a joint Serbian-Romanian-Slovak political action plan.
  • Keywords: Emil Gavrilla, Serbian Radical Party, trial against the authors of the Memorandum (1894), Congress of nationalities (Budapest, 1895)
Literature
  • Valentin Tascu, Introduction to the Theory of Rhythm (II): In Romanian Thought, p. 128
  • Abstract - Introduction to the Theory of Rhythm (II): In Romanian Thought  - Whole generations of poets and poetry readers lived with the obsession of versification, prosody, and metrics. This was due, on the one hand, to the tradition of ancient Greek and Latin poetry and, on the other, to the insistence of certain academic institutions, schools, and scholarly trends to “direct” poetic creation towards the classicized and secure models of Antiquity. The present study focuses on the Romanian contributions to the theory of versification, from the early voices of Miron Costin and Macarie though the tentative and sometimes original theories of the 19th century and finally to the more scholarly approaches of the 20th century.
  • Keywords: poetry, prosody, theory of versification, rhythm, literary theory
 

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